AMSCO Chapter 3 Quiz

Where were the orgins of the Greek culture developed?
Eastern end of the Mediterranean in the Minoan & Mycenaean Kingdoms
What were the areas influenced by Classical Greek cultures called?
Hellenistic kingdoms
Where did the Minoans live?
On an island in the Aegean Sea called Crete
Since Crete had many harbors but little fertile soil, what did they rely on?
Relied on trade and grew rich through trade
What was the beautiful city the Minoans built in Crete?
Knossos
Has any writing from the Minoan civilization been deciphered?
No
Where was the city of Mycenae?
On the mainland of Greece
Was the city of Mycenae ever conquered by the Minoans?
No yet it contained artifacts revealing a number of Minoan cultural influences
When did both the Minoan and the Mycenaean civilizations decline?
Declined in what is sometimes called a “dark age” starting around 1100 B.C.E and lasting until about 750 B.C.E.
What continued to spread to the Greek mainland, southwest Asia, and North Africa after the decline in the M civilizations?
Their arts and culture
Describe the Greek mainland.
A giant peninsula that juts into the Mediterranean, and the surrounding waters include many small islands
The islands and the mainland’s irregular coastline made what important?
Seafaring and trade
What did Greeks become open to trough trading partners? Example?
Became open to new ideas and technology. Example: the Greeks quickly adopted the Phoenicians alphabet
The Greeks separated into…
Poleis (city- states)
What was the poleis “relationship” over the course of Greece’s history?
Allies at times and enemies at times
What resulted from Greece developing competition due to it’s expanded Persian empire?
The Persian Wars of the fifth and fourth centuries B.C.E
Greece was a ……? Who were not considered citizens?
a patriarchy- free males only; slaves and foreigners could not be citizens
What were citizens called who were called upon to defend the Greek lands?
hoplites (infantry members)
Monarchy
a king rules the state
Aristocracy
nobles ruled
oligarchy
a few wealthy land owners and merchants ruled
Democracy
All citizens participated
What were two of the most powerful poleis?
Sparta and Athens
What does Sparta remain famous for?
Developed a society organized around producing a powerful military
Sparta’s focus on developing soldiers began with…?
child- rearing (bringing up a child?
What did they do to boys to prepare them for the harsh life of a soldier?
Boys suffered physical abuse, went without food, and were ridiculed for showing any sign of weakness
What age did men serve till?
60
What greater freedoms did free Spartan women enjoy?
education, own property, not secluded in their homes, praise for staying fit and participated in athletics
Who did Spartan societies rely on to do agricultural labor needed to fen everyone?
Helots (slaves)
What kind of government did the Spartan’s have?
oligarchy
What did the Spartans believe the top-down government power was necessary for?
stable and prosperous society
What is Athens remembered for?
its political and intellectual achievements
What did Solon do?
a wise ruler who improved the life in Athens (set many athenians free from enslaved debt and limited amount of land any man could own)
What developed due to Athens and other Greek city-states increases trade with one and another?
prosperous merchant classes
Who did merchants resent? what did they do about it?
they resent ppl who held monopoly on political power. they joined small farmers to support tyrants and overthrew the aristocrats.
describe Athens government style over time.
monarchy–aristocracy–tyranny–direct democracy
Describe Athen’s direct democracy.
a government in which all the citizens could vote directly on law and other issues in a large assembly
What is Pericules credited for?
reformed to government such as transfer of power to an assembly and ruled during the “golden ages”
What was life like for women and slaves in Athens? What were they believe to be?
Hard (no education, no say in government, could not own land,etc.). Women were believed to be intellectually inferior to men and thus incapable of being satisfying relationship partners.
What did art, math, and literature created by Athenians form the basis of?
The basis of academic discipline still studies in schools worldwide
What is Socrates know for?
His emphasis on continually asking equations to clarify another persons idea (Socratic Method)
What did Plato do?
Opened a school called the Academy and taught his students to question nature of ideas (good, evil, justice and beauty) and wrote dialogues
What did Aristotle do?
-best know for his ideas about ethics
-emphasized gaining knowledge through trusting what you learn from observation an evident of sense (empiricism)
-focused on logic
What was the Greek religion based on?
an influential set of myths in which they expressed their ideas about right and wrong behavior and the role of gods in their life
The Greek religion became more and more…
syncretic (combining ideas from different sources)
Greek …..and ……were closely connected?
religion and literature
Greek sports emphasized what?
rituals
when was the Greek olympics held and where?
every four years in olympia
What did Greek city states begin establishing around the 8th century b.c.e?
colonies around the mediterranean
What was the Achaemenid Empire and what did it unite?
the First Persian Empire and it united three of the earliest centers of civilizations-Mesopatamia, Egypt, and India
Describe the Achaemenid Empire
largest, most diverse empire
Why did Darius 1 divide lands in conquered into provinces?
So that the king’s polices announced in the capital of Persepolis could be administered throughout the empire.
What was s satrap?
A ruler responsible to the emperor
What did inspectors (the eyes and ears of the king) do?
Travel to each province and report to the king on the behavior of the satraps
What was Royal Road?
the most famous of the networked of roads built to encourage trade (about 1500 miles across empire)
Where is Persepolis located?
Iran
A common currency help to do what?
Made trade simpler and united the empire
What did Darius 1 tolerated? Was this usual?
He allowed ethnic groups to retain their cultural identity and tolerated religious diversity as long as people paid their taxes and contributed to soldiers to military forces to maintain the empire. This was an unusual policy (rare)
What is one of the most important legacies of the Persians?
the spread of monotheism
What was the Persian society like?
Had the same social stratification as earlier empire. It had larger class of educated, well- paid government workers (due to size). Many more slaves
Even though the Persian empire was patriarchal, what were women allowed to do?
Own and manage property, and allow to keep wages
What water irrigation technology did the Persians invent?
Qanats- underground canals that were used to reduce evaporation of water as it traveled to the fields
Describe Persia v. Greece
1) Greek city-states expanded east and Persian empire expanded west and they clashed
2) Persian empire occupied some Greek colonies so Greek areas rebelled (Persian Wars)
3)Athenian army outnumbered Persian forces and Persia withdrew from Greece
4) Persians won Battle of Thermophylae and captured and burned Athens
5) Greeks won the naval battle of Salamis and won back land
What did the Persian empire decline?
The cost of the battle severely damaged Persian empire and Xerxes was less tolerant toward non-Persian in the empire
Did the Athen-Sparta relationship last?
No, Sparta revolted against Athens (because didn’t want to pay taxes) and Sparta defeated Athens and became the dominant power in Greece
What new power arose in Macedonia?
Philip 2 (want to conquer and unite Greek city states and conquer Asia minor)
Who help Alexander the Great rule?
native residents
How did Alexander cement his relations with leaders in the area?
Marrying several Persian women and urged his leading generals to do the same
What was Alexandria?
the center of Hellenistic cruller and major seaport in Egypt
What was a result of Alexander’s conquest?
Greek language, architecture,mythology, and philosophy became widespread
What happened after Alexander the Great died?
He did leave a heir so generals battle over who should rule. Greek land divided into several and eventually feel to the Roman empire
What are similarities between Persia and Greece?
-covered large territories
-had wide cultural influence
-allowed most women few rights
What are some difference of Persia and Greece?
Persian has a high tolerance for diverse customs and traditions while the Greeks were more united culturally (religion, language, and traditions)