american history ch 9

What were the four goals of progressivism?
a. Protecting social welfare
b. Promoting moral improvement
c. Creating economic reform
d. Fostering efficiency
How did prohibition fit into the goals of the progressive reform movement?
Promoting moral improvement
Why did the prohibition movement appeal to so many women?
Many women were the victims of the alcohol abuse of their husbands.
They also saw themselves as the protectors of children who were also negatively impacted by the alcohol
abuse of their fathers and bosses. Many temperance societies supported other causes that were important to women (e.g. suffrage, ending child labor, improving public education, promoting workplace safety.)
What contributions did muckrakers make to the reform movement?
The muckrakers investigated and exposed social, political, and economic corruption and
problems through their publications. They brought the issues to the public’s attention so that
action could be taken to reform the problems.
Contrast the goals of scientific management with other progressive reforms.
The goals of scientific management were to improve the efficiency of industry. The research studies yielded information about how to increase production, speed up the manufacturing process, and minimize lost time and resources. The advancement of the assembly line, industrial training, reduced working hours, and incentive pay increased the efficiency of factories. The drive for industrial efficiency inspired the reforms in government efficiency.
How did natural disasters help launch the movement to reform local government?
Natural disasters put local politicians on the spot to provide immediate relief and recovery. Unqualified and/or corrupt politicians often failed at both and the disaster served to highlight their lack of ability. The disaster also gave citizens and reformers the forum to enact major changes in government structures (such as: five-member city commissions or council-manager systems).
How did reform mayors clean up their local governments?
a. Hazen Pingree (Detroit, Michigan) instituted a fairer tax structure, lowered fares for public
transit, rooted out corruption, and set up a system of work relief for the unemployed. He also employed city workers to build schools, parks, and a city lighting plant.

b. Tom Johnson (Cleveland, Ohio) – one of 19 socialist mayors – forced corrupt business leaders out of the city (gasworks, waterworks, transit lines) and converted the utilities to publicly owned companies. He encouraged his citizens to take a more active role in government by holding large and well-publicized town meetings.

How did city government change during the progressive era?
In general, cities became more aware of corruption and mismanagement and used various
strategies to reform and become more responsible for and responsive to their citizens.
How did reforms protect children?
a. As a result of the investigations and public demonstrations and exhibitions of the National Child Labor Committee, Congress passed the Keating-Owen Act that prohibited the transportation across state lines of goods produced with child labor. (The Supreme Court found the law unconstitutional two years later.)
b. Reformers did manage to pass laws to effectively ban child labor and set maximum working hours.
How did reforms change working conditions?
a. Muller v. Oregon and Bunting v. Oregon upheld state laws limiting women and men respectively
to 10-hour workdays.
b. Progressive reformers also won workers’ compensation and death benefits.
What kinds of political reforms took place at the state level
a. Major reforms at the state level were pioneered by Governor William U’ren of Oregon. These
reforms were gradually adopted by many other states.
i. Secret ballot = privacy in the casting of ballots
ii. Initiative = a bill the is created by (originates with) the people rather than the legislature
iii. Referendum = a public vote on an initiative
iv. Recall = empowers people to remove elected officials from office by popular vote
b. Minnesota created the first direct primary system in which voters, not political machines, selected the candidates who would run for office in the general election. Most states adopted a form of the direct primary system.
Summarize the impact of direct election of senators.
a. The Seventeenth Amendment, ratified in 1913, mandated that U.S. Senators be voted into office
through general elections.
i. Prior to this, the state legislatures had appointed U.S. Senators.
b. This amendment forced the U.S. Senators to be more responsive to their constituents and gave the American people a greater voice in electing their legislators and creating laws.
What kind of work was available to women before the Civil War?
a. Married, more affluent women were supposed to be housewives and mothers. Poor urban women had to take jobs in factories, sweatshops, domestic labor, or worked from home. Rural women were expected to run the household and also work full-time on the farm.
How did women’s pay compare with men’s pay in factories?
Women’s pay was much lower (usually 50% lower) because they were given less skilled jobs and they were excluded from most labor unions and were not protected by the contracts that unions negotiated.
Why did women take white-collar jobs?
Women took white-collar jobs because opportunities were expanding for them in the work
force, education was increasing (more women than men earned high school diplomas), and
technical and business training schools began to admit women.
What kinds of job opportunities prompted more women to complete high school?
a. Teachers, secretaries, bookkeepers, typists, stenographers, retail, etc.
b. New women’s colleges also prompted more women to complete high school.
How did the opening of women’s colleges help create more opportunities for women?
Since most colleges refused to admit women, the opening of women’s colleges allowed women to receive higher education. Many male-dominated professions opened to women as a result of the advanced degrees. The education often inspired women to enter the Progressive reform movement.
Why were there women leaders in the movements to reform social welfare, public morals, and race relations?
Participating of educated women strengthened existing reform groups and helped forge new ones. Since women did not have a political voice without the vote, many women sought to improve conditions in homes and work. They tended to focus their efforts on employment reform, housing reform, educational reform, and food and drug safety.
How did Susan B. Anthony help the cause of women?
She was a leader in the fight for women’s suffrage. Anthony co-founded the National Women
Suffrage Association (NWSA) with Elizabeth Cady Stanton. They merged their group with the
National American Woman Suffrage Association (NAWSA) in 1890.
What social and economic effects did higher education have on women?
The slow movement towards social and economic parity for women had the effect of empowering women to take risks and choose lifestyles that went against the mold of the accepted sphere for women. Women went into white-collar jobs, higher education, reform movements – some even decided not to accept the traditional sphere of wife and mother.
Why did suffragist leaders employ a three-part strategy for gaining the right to vote?
a. The three-part strategy consisted of:
i. Trying to convince state legislatures to grant women the right to vote (Wyoming, Utah, Colorado, Idaho)
ii. Pursuing court cases to test the 14th Amendment (which declared that states denying their male citizens the right to vote would lose their congressional representation) to see if the state courts or Supreme Court would apply the Amendment’s protections to women – in 1875 the Supreme Court ruled that while women were citizens that did not automatically transfer to suffrage
iii. Pushing for a national constitutional amendment to grant women suffrage
b. The three-part strategy was used because there was tremendous opposition to women suffrage
and reforms attempted to use as many tactics as possible to achieve their goals. Many were afraid that as a voting block, women would support prohibition and significant labor reforms. There was also a fear that if women were fully liberated it would result in the breakdown of the family structure. Some even contended that women were not intelligent enough to be an educated and responsible voters
How did Theodore Roosevelt become president?
Theodore Roosevelt was William McKinley’s vice-president when he ran for re-election in 1900. When McKinley was assassinated 6 months into his second term, Roosevelt became the youngest president in history.
What did Theodore Roosevelt do that brought him to national prominence?
Roosevelt graduated from Harvard University as a college athlete. He served three terms in the
New York State Assembly, was the police commissioner of NYC, and was appointed as the assistant Secretary of the Navy. During the Spanish-American War in 1898, Roosevelt mustered, trained, and outfitted a volunteer regiment of cavalry, the Rough Riders, and led them to victory in Cuba. He was elected governor of New York. He was also a prolific writer (published over 44 books.)
How did Roosevelt create the first modern presidency?
Roosevelt was a celebrity and managed and manipulated the spotlight masterfully. He
employed his personal charisma to influence politics. He defined the federal government as being responsible for the physical and mental welfare of its citizens. He also believed that it was the job of a powerful federal government to step in whenever state governments could not or failed to address the needs and concerns of citizens. He expanded the role of president from manager to innovator and leader who influenced media and legislation; he called this role the bully pulpit.
How did Roosevelt’s intervention in a coal strike set a precedent for federal arbitration?
a. Roosevelt called representatives from the management and workers of the mine to the White House so that he could broker a compromise. He did this because the work stoppage threatened the economic security of the nation (coal reserves were running dangerously low). He was able to convince both sides to agree to resolve their differences at an arbitration hearing.
b. Roosevelt set the precedent for the federal government, especially the President, to intervene whenever a labor dispute threatened public welfare.
What did Roosevelt do to the trusts and railroads?
a. His administration brought over 44 anti-trust (trustbusting) cases against powerful corporations
that were using unfair practices to limit competition and exploit workers and consumers using
the Sherman Anti-Trust Act.
b. He also used the Interstate Commerce Act and Interstate Commerce Commission to investigate
railroad practices. Upon learning that railroads were not following state and federal mandates, he helped push two laws through Congress that strengthened the federal government’s ability to ensure fair business practices in transportation.
i. Elkins Act – (1903) made it illegal for railroads to give and shippers to receive rebates for using a particular railroad company
ii. Hepburn Act – (1906) limited the ability of railroad companies to distribute free railroad passes (which were often a form of bribery) and gave the Interstate Commerce Commission the ability to set maximum railroad rates
What legislation passed during Roosevelt’s presidency protected citizens?
The Meat Inspection Act – (1906) set strict cleanliness requirements for meatpackers and created a program of federal meat inspection
b. The Pure Food and Drug Act – (1906) halted the sale of contaminated foods and medicines and required truth in labeling and advertising
What similarities did the Meat Inspection Act and the Pure Food and Drug Act share?
a. Both laws significantly increased federal responsibility for public welfare and safety. They also
increased federal control over private businesses and required that the creation of new federal
agencies to carry out the application of the laws.
b. Both laws had severe limitations.
i. The Meat Inspection Act required the federal governments to pay for the inspectors and did not require that meatpackers label their products with date-of-processing information. They companies could also appeal negative inspections in court.
ii. The Pure Food and Drug Act did not actually ban harmful consumer goods. The lawmakers just assumed that people would not be conned into using harmful products.
What did Roosevelt do to protect the environment?
a. Roosevelt set aside 148 million acres of forest reserves, 1.5 million acres of waterpower sites,
and 80 million acres for U.S. Geological Survey exploration. He also established over 50 wildlife
sanctuaries and national parks.
b. Roosevelt empowered the U.S. Forest Service by appointing Gifford Pinchot, a professional
forester, as the agency’s head and frequently sought the advise of Pinchot in matters of conservation and the environment. Roosevelt authorized the development of some protected land for the common good (with the urging of Gifford Pinchot).
c. Roosevelt helped push the National Reclamation Act (a.k.a. Newlands Act) through Congress in 1902. This law used the money from the sale of government lands in the West for large-scale irrigation projects (e.g. Roosevelt Dam in Arizona and the Shoshone Dam in Wyoming.) This set the precedent for the federal government to manage the nation’s water resources.
What were the contributions of Booker T. Washington and W.E.B. Du Bois in the fight for civil rights?
a. Washington established the Tuskegee Normal and Industrial Institute. He urged African Americans to be patient and accepting of segregation and to earn the respect of white by gaining vocational training and economic self-reliance.
b. W.E.B. Du Bois coordinated a national civil rights conference in Niagara Falls, NY, in 1905 and he co-founded the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) in 1909. He led the Niagara Movement to promote the full liberal arts education of black Americans. He advocated an immediate end to segregation and discrimination and full equality for black Americans.
Describe how Roosevelt both succeeded and failed to further the cause of civil rights?
a. Roosevelt did support individual African Americans, though not the larger civil rights
movement.
b. Successes – He appointed an African America as the head of the customhouse in Charleston, SC. He supported an African American postmistress in Mississippi. Roosevelt invited Booker T. Washington to dinner at the White House.
c. Failures – He supported segregation by not seeking to end the practice and he frequently blamed black poverty on blacks and urged them to accept discrimination and segregation for the time being.
Who were muckrakers and why was their work so valuable?
a. The muckrakers were journalists who investigated and exposed the corruption in politics,
business, and society.
b. Their work helped to expose evils in society and prompted reform on the part of the their
readers.
Who were Ida M. Tarbell (The History of the Standard Oil Company), Lincoln Steffens (The Shame of the
Cities), and Upton Sinclair (The Jungle) and what industries did their famous publications target for reform?
a. Ida M. Tarbell (The History of the Standard Oil Company) = Tarbell exposed the corruption in John D. Rockefeller’s Standard Oil Company which led to significant reforms in government oversight of big business. The book inspired the trustbusting campaigns of Roosevelt, Taft, and Wilson.
b. Lincoln Steffens (The Shame of the Cities) = Steffens exposed political corruptions and voter fraud at the local, state, and national level. His writings inspired the reforms instituted in many cities (city commissions, city managers, and city councils) and states (secret ballot, initiative, referendum, and recall).
c. Upton Sinclair (The Jungle) = Sinclair exposed the dangerous and unsanitary practices in the meat packing industry. His book, The Jungle, prompted Roosevelt to launch a federal investigation of the meat packing industry that lead to the passage of the Meat Inspection Act and the Pure Food and Drug Act.
How did Taft get selected to run for president?
Taft was Roosevelt’s Secretary of War and was selected by Roosevelt to run in the 1908 election.
What did Taft do that angered progressive Republicans?
a. Taft was much more cautious and less forceful than Roosevelt had been in seeking reform.
b. He failed to use the presidential bully pulpit.
c. Even though he had promised to support lower tariffs during the campaign, Taft signed the
Payne-Aldrich Tariff that raised tariff rates.
d. Taft appointed Richard Ballinger as Secretary if the Interior. Ballinger removed 1 million acres
of federal land from protected status and opened it up for private use. When Gifford Pinchot, Roosevelt’s tremendously popular director of the U.S. Forest Service, publicly testified against Ballinger, Taft fired Pinchot.
How did Taft’s support of Joe Cannon alienate progressive Republicans?
Joe Cannon was a political boss who was more conservative than progressive. Taft supported Cannon in his position as Speaker of the House. As Speaker, Cannon controlled who comprised Congressional committees and on which bills the House would vote. His power significantly diminished the momentum and effectiveness of Progressive reforms.
Why did Roosevelt come to oppose Taft for president in 1912?
a. Roosevelt believed that Taft has abandoned Progressivism and was actively working to reverse
the Progressive gains. He decided to run against Taft for the Republican nomination for
President in the 1912 election.
b. When Taft’s supporters prevailed during the Republican convention and Taft was nominated,
Roosevelt and the Progressives in the Republican party split to form a new political party, the Progressive (Bull Moose) Party. Roosevelt was nominated as the candidate for the Bull Moose Party.
What were the differences between Taft and Roosevelt’s campaign platforms?
a. Roosevelt’s Bull Moose platform was known as “New Nationalism.” It advocated direct
election of senators, initiative/referendum/recall in all states, woman suffrage, workers’ compensation, an 8-hour workday, a federal law banning child labor, and a federal trade commission to regulate business. Roosevelt supported government action to monitor big business but did not believe that all monopolies were evil.
b. Taft’s Republican platform supported moderate tariff rates, opening federally protected land to private development, conservative fiscal policies, and segregation.
Who were the candidates in the 1912 election?
a. Taft = Republican
b. Debs = Socialist
c. Wilson = Democrat
d. Roosevelt = Bull Moose
What event helped Wilson to win the election of 1912?
a. The contentious split in the Republican Party and Wilson’s “New Freedom” Progressive Reform
platform led him to victory in the 1912 election.
b. New Freedom called for federal support of small business and free-market competition. It
maintained that all monopolies were evil and advocated reforms to ensure fairness and competition. Wilson planned to use his New Freedom program to attack the “triple wall of privilege” – trusts, tariffs, and high finance.
What legislation (two laws) did Wilson use to attack trusts and monopolies?
a. Clayton Antitrust Act (1914) -Strengthened the Sherman Antitrust Act by prohibiting corporations from acquiring the stock of another if doing so would create a monopoly. It also recognized the legal right of labor unions and agricultural organizations to exist. It protected the rights of such organizations to strike, collectively bargain, peacefully picket, boycott, and use other measures to secure better, safer conditions.
b. Federal Trade Commission Act (1914) – Established the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) as a watchdog agency that investigated possible violations of federal and state laws, required periodic reports from corporations, and ended many unfair business practices. The FTC could issue and enforce cease-and-desist orders to companies engaged in anti-competitive and illegal activities.
What was the impact of these two antitrust measures?
The Clayton Antitrust Act and the Federal Trade Commission Act significantly increased
competition in business and led to fairer business and labor practices. It also increased federal
oversight of and involvement in the economy.
How were the lowering of tariffs and introduction of the income tax related?
When Wilson successfully used the bully pulpit to encourage Congress to pass the Underwood Tariff in 1913, which lowered tariff rates substantially for the first time since the Civil War, the federal government was left with a financial deficit and needed to replace the lost revenue. The Sixteenth Amendment (ratified in 1913) legalized a graduated federal income tax for individuals and businesses and replaced the lost revenue from lowered tariffs. Income tax is the federal government’s largest source of revenue.
How did Wilson reform banking?
Wilson needed to strengthen the ways in which banks were run as well to find a way to monitor
and quickly adjust the amount of money in circulation. Wilson used the bully pulpit to push the Federal Reserve Act of 1913 through Congress. It established the decentralized private banking system under federal control – the Federal Reserve System. The nation was divided into 12 banking districts each with a regional central bank that controlled all the other banks in the district. The Fed had the power to issue new paper currency, make loans, and transfer funds. The Fed stabilized the nation’s banking system.
How did women finally win the vote?
a. The ongoing and diversified struggle for woman suffrage eventually led to the ratification of the Nineteenth Amendment. Three events significantly impacted the struggle in a positive way:
i. Increased activism of local groups (Boston Equal Suffrage Association for Good Government and the College Equal Suffrage League used door-to-door campaigns, trolley tours, and public speeches)
ii. Use of bold new strategies to build enthusiasm for suffrage (Emmeline Pankhurst from England inspired American groups to heckle government officials, stage spectacular parades, organize public protest meetings, and capture media attention through hunger strikers)
iii. Rebirth of the national woman suffrage movement (NAWSA) under Carrie Chapman Catt. Catt’s “Winning Plan” called for:
1. painstaking organization
2. close ties between local, state, and national workers
3. establishing a wide base of support
4. cautious lobbying
5. gracious, ladylike behavior
Why did they win the vote in 1920 when earlier attempts had failed?
a. Media attention captured by the National Woman’s Party under the leadership of Alice Paula and Lucy Burns made the struggle for woman suffrage front-page news and sustained interest among nationwide supports.
b. Suffrage began to be viewed as the reward for women’s support for the war effort during WW1
i. when women entered the workforce in place of the men who left to for Europe, sold and
purchased the liberty bonds that funded the war effort, volunteered as nurses and in
other wartime roles, and actively supported the conservation precious natural resources
What was the 19th Amendment
Granted women the right to vote (suffrage)
What actions of Wilson disappointed civil rights advocated?
Wilson appointed segregationists to head federal agencies and expanded racial segregation in the federal government, military, and Washington D.C. He opposed anti-lynching legislation. He appointed while Southerners who supported segregation to his presidential cabinet. He believed that the doctrine of “separate but equal” what was legalized by the Plessey v. Ferguson Supreme Court decision was legal and fair.
How did America’s entry into WWI affect the reform movement?
The outbreak of WW1 turned the attention the American people and resources of the federal
government to emergency wartime measures and Progressivism essentially ended.