b. Promoting moral improvement
c. Creating economic reform
d. Fostering efficiency
They also saw themselves as the protectors of children who were also negatively impacted by the alcohol
abuse of their fathers and bosses. Many temperance societies supported other causes that were important to women (e.g. suffrage, ending child labor, improving public education, promoting workplace safety.)
problems through their publications. They brought the issues to the public’s attention so that
action could be taken to reform the problems.
transit, rooted out corruption, and set up a system of work relief for the unemployed. He also employed city workers to build schools, parks, and a city lighting plant.
b. Tom Johnson (Cleveland, Ohio) – one of 19 socialist mayors – forced corrupt business leaders out of the city (gasworks, waterworks, transit lines) and converted the utilities to publicly owned companies. He encouraged his citizens to take a more active role in government by holding large and well-publicized town meetings.
strategies to reform and become more responsible for and responsive to their citizens.
b. Reformers did manage to pass laws to effectively ban child labor and set maximum working hours.
to 10-hour workdays.
b. Progressive reformers also won workers’ compensation and death benefits.
reforms were gradually adopted by many other states.
i. Secret ballot = privacy in the casting of ballots
ii. Initiative = a bill the is created by (originates with) the people rather than the legislature
iii. Referendum = a public vote on an initiative
iv. Recall = empowers people to remove elected officials from office by popular vote
b. Minnesota created the first direct primary system in which voters, not political machines, selected the candidates who would run for office in the general election. Most states adopted a form of the direct primary system.
through general elections.
i. Prior to this, the state legislatures had appointed U.S. Senators.
b. This amendment forced the U.S. Senators to be more responsive to their constituents and gave the American people a greater voice in electing their legislators and creating laws.
force, education was increasing (more women than men earned high school diplomas), and
technical and business training schools began to admit women.
b. New women’s colleges also prompted more women to complete high school.
Suffrage Association (NWSA) with Elizabeth Cady Stanton. They merged their group with the
National American Woman Suffrage Association (NAWSA) in 1890.
i. Trying to convince state legislatures to grant women the right to vote (Wyoming, Utah, Colorado, Idaho)
ii. Pursuing court cases to test the 14th Amendment (which declared that states denying their male citizens the right to vote would lose their congressional representation) to see if the state courts or Supreme Court would apply the Amendment’s protections to women – in 1875 the Supreme Court ruled that while women were citizens that did not automatically transfer to suffrage
iii. Pushing for a national constitutional amendment to grant women suffrage
b. The three-part strategy was used because there was tremendous opposition to women suffrage
and reforms attempted to use as many tactics as possible to achieve their goals. Many were afraid that as a voting block, women would support prohibition and significant labor reforms. There was also a fear that if women were fully liberated it would result in the breakdown of the family structure. Some even contended that women were not intelligent enough to be an educated and responsible voters
New York State Assembly, was the police commissioner of NYC, and was appointed as the assistant Secretary of the Navy. During the Spanish-American War in 1898, Roosevelt mustered, trained, and outfitted a volunteer regiment of cavalry, the Rough Riders, and led them to victory in Cuba. He was elected governor of New York. He was also a prolific writer (published over 44 books.)
employed his personal charisma to influence politics. He defined the federal government as being responsible for the physical and mental welfare of its citizens. He also believed that it was the job of a powerful federal government to step in whenever state governments could not or failed to address the needs and concerns of citizens. He expanded the role of president from manager to innovator and leader who influenced media and legislation; he called this role the bully pulpit.
b. Roosevelt set the precedent for the federal government, especially the President, to intervene whenever a labor dispute threatened public welfare.
that were using unfair practices to limit competition and exploit workers and consumers using
the Sherman Anti-Trust Act.
b. He also used the Interstate Commerce Act and Interstate Commerce Commission to investigate
railroad practices. Upon learning that railroads were not following state and federal mandates, he helped push two laws through Congress that strengthened the federal government’s ability to ensure fair business practices in transportation.
i. Elkins Act – (1903) made it illegal for railroads to give and shippers to receive rebates for using a particular railroad company
ii. Hepburn Act – (1906) limited the ability of railroad companies to distribute free railroad passes (which were often a form of bribery) and gave the Interstate Commerce Commission the ability to set maximum railroad rates
b. The Pure Food and Drug Act – (1906) halted the sale of contaminated foods and medicines and required truth in labeling and advertising
increased federal control over private businesses and required that the creation of new federal
agencies to carry out the application of the laws.
b. Both laws had severe limitations.
i. The Meat Inspection Act required the federal governments to pay for the inspectors and did not require that meatpackers label their products with date-of-processing information. They companies could also appeal negative inspections in court.
ii. The Pure Food and Drug Act did not actually ban harmful consumer goods. The lawmakers just assumed that people would not be conned into using harmful products.
and 80 million acres for U.S. Geological Survey exploration. He also established over 50 wildlife
sanctuaries and national parks.
b. Roosevelt empowered the U.S. Forest Service by appointing Gifford Pinchot, a professional
forester, as the agency’s head and frequently sought the advise of Pinchot in matters of conservation and the environment. Roosevelt authorized the development of some protected land for the common good (with the urging of Gifford Pinchot).
c. Roosevelt helped push the National Reclamation Act (a.k.a. Newlands Act) through Congress in 1902. This law used the money from the sale of government lands in the West for large-scale irrigation projects (e.g. Roosevelt Dam in Arizona and the Shoshone Dam in Wyoming.) This set the precedent for the federal government to manage the nation’s water resources.
b. W.E.B. Du Bois coordinated a national civil rights conference in Niagara Falls, NY, in 1905 and he co-founded the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) in 1909. He led the Niagara Movement to promote the full liberal arts education of black Americans. He advocated an immediate end to segregation and discrimination and full equality for black Americans.
b. Successes – He appointed an African America as the head of the customhouse in Charleston, SC. He supported an African American postmistress in Mississippi. Roosevelt invited Booker T. Washington to dinner at the White House.
c. Failures – He supported segregation by not seeking to end the practice and he frequently blamed black poverty on blacks and urged them to accept discrimination and segregation for the time being.
business, and society.
b. Their work helped to expose evils in society and prompted reform on the part of the their
Cities), and Upton Sinclair (The Jungle) and what industries did their famous publications target for reform?
b. Lincoln Steffens (The Shame of the Cities) = Steffens exposed political corruptions and voter fraud at the local, state, and national level. His writings inspired the reforms instituted in many cities (city commissions, city managers, and city councils) and states (secret ballot, initiative, referendum, and recall).
c. Upton Sinclair (The Jungle) = Sinclair exposed the dangerous and unsanitary practices in the meat packing industry. His book, The Jungle, prompted Roosevelt to launch a federal investigation of the meat packing industry that lead to the passage of the Meat Inspection Act and the Pure Food and Drug Act.
b. He failed to use the presidential bully pulpit.
c. Even though he had promised to support lower tariffs during the campaign, Taft signed the
Payne-Aldrich Tariff that raised tariff rates.
d. Taft appointed Richard Ballinger as Secretary if the Interior. Ballinger removed 1 million acres
of federal land from protected status and opened it up for private use. When Gifford Pinchot, Roosevelt’s tremendously popular director of the U.S. Forest Service, publicly testified against Ballinger, Taft fired Pinchot.
the Progressive gains. He decided to run against Taft for the Republican nomination for
President in the 1912 election.
b. When Taft’s supporters prevailed during the Republican convention and Taft was nominated,
Roosevelt and the Progressives in the Republican party split to form a new political party, the Progressive (Bull Moose) Party. Roosevelt was nominated as the candidate for the Bull Moose Party.
election of senators, initiative/referendum/recall in all states, woman suffrage, workers’ compensation, an 8-hour workday, a federal law banning child labor, and a federal trade commission to regulate business. Roosevelt supported government action to monitor big business but did not believe that all monopolies were evil.
b. Taft’s Republican platform supported moderate tariff rates, opening federally protected land to private development, conservative fiscal policies, and segregation.
b. Debs = Socialist
c. Wilson = Democrat
d. Roosevelt = Bull Moose
platform led him to victory in the 1912 election.
b. New Freedom called for federal support of small business and free-market competition. It
maintained that all monopolies were evil and advocated reforms to ensure fairness and competition. Wilson planned to use his New Freedom program to attack the “triple wall of privilege” – trusts, tariffs, and high finance.
b. Federal Trade Commission Act (1914) – Established the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) as a watchdog agency that investigated possible violations of federal and state laws, required periodic reports from corporations, and ended many unfair business practices. The FTC could issue and enforce cease-and-desist orders to companies engaged in anti-competitive and illegal activities.
competition in business and led to fairer business and labor practices. It also increased federal
oversight of and involvement in the economy.
and quickly adjust the amount of money in circulation. Wilson used the bully pulpit to push the Federal Reserve Act of 1913 through Congress. It established the decentralized private banking system under federal control – the Federal Reserve System. The nation was divided into 12 banking districts each with a regional central bank that controlled all the other banks in the district. The Fed had the power to issue new paper currency, make loans, and transfer funds. The Fed stabilized the nation’s banking system.
i. Increased activism of local groups (Boston Equal Suffrage Association for Good Government and the College Equal Suffrage League used door-to-door campaigns, trolley tours, and public speeches)
ii. Use of bold new strategies to build enthusiasm for suffrage (Emmeline Pankhurst from England inspired American groups to heckle government officials, stage spectacular parades, organize public protest meetings, and capture media attention through hunger strikers)
iii. Rebirth of the national woman suffrage movement (NAWSA) under Carrie Chapman Catt. Catt’s “Winning Plan” called for:
1. painstaking organization
2. close ties between local, state, and national workers
3. establishing a wide base of support
4. cautious lobbying
5. gracious, ladylike behavior
b. Suffrage began to be viewed as the reward for women’s support for the war effort during WW1
i. when women entered the workforce in place of the men who left to for Europe, sold and
purchased the liberty bonds that funded the war effort, volunteered as nurses and in
other wartime roles, and actively supported the conservation precious natural resources
government to emergency wartime measures and Progressivism essentially ended.