ALS Chapter 4: Full Range Leadership Development

Skills Theory
focuses on leaders who are emotionally intelligent and can successfully solve problems and make logical decisions.
Situational Leadership Theory
Focused on a follower’s competence and commitment, or development level in completing a specific task and the use of four different leadership styles to influence the follower’s development.
Contingency Theory
Leaders cannot change behaviors. They are moved into and out of various situations based on three critical situational factors: leader-member relations, leader’s position power, and the task structure.
Trait Leadership Theory
a person’s ability to lead depends on their intellect, self-confidence, determination, integrity, and social skills.
Laissez-Faire (the “none-leadership”)
view the development of their subordinates as someone else’s problem, abandon or pass on their responsibilities to others.
Management by Exception-Passive (MBE-P)
If it isn’t broke, don’t fix it leadership approach. Elects to sit back and wait for things to go wrong before taking action.
Management by Exception-Active (MBE-A)
Corrective transaction between the leader and the follower. It exists in structured systems with detailed instructions, careful observation, and active supervision.
Contingent Rewards
involves the constructive transaction between the leader and the follower. The transaction becomes a contract or goal between the leader and the follower.
Individualized Consideration (nurturing)
Aim is to develop followers into leaders themselves. Treat others as individuals with different needs, abilities, and aspirations and not just a part of a group of subordinates.
Intellectual Stimulation (Thinking)
The degree to which leaders value their subordinates rationality and intellect, seeking different perspectives and considering opposing points of view.
Inspirational Motivation (Charming)
Involves developing and articulating visions that paint an optimistic and enthusiastic picture of the future that is appealing and inspiring to followers.
Idealized Influence
Are charismatic and act as positive role models that walk the walk. They hold themselves to the highest standards, personally and professionally; followers tend to trust and respect the leader and will emulate the leader’s behavior.
Contemporary Motivation
Categorizes a member’s commitment to the organization into three levels. These levels are membership, performance and involvement of commitment.
Extrinsic
type of motivation from recognition, pay raises, and other tangible rewards.
Skinner’s Theory
based on the belief that one is motivated by favorable and unfavorable results.
McClelland’s Theory
Theory argues that for a reward to be appropriate, accepted, and effective; it must fulfill a member’s needs.
Intrinsic
Type of motivation that initiates from inside an individual.
Positive Punishment
Occurs when the leader applies or presents an unfavorable action or result to a follower who has demonstrated an undesirable behavior… adding something to stop a behavior from occurring.
Negative Punishment
Occurs when a leader removes something valued by the follower after they have demonstrated an undesirable or unacceptable behavior…taking something away to stop a behavior from occurring.
Negative Reinforcement
Includes the removal of unpleasant, unfavorable actions or event the follower is currently experiencing that occurs after they have displayed a desirable behavior, or taking something away that the follower thinks is bad in order to reinforce a behavior.
Positive Reinforcement
Involves favorable actions, results, or outcomes that a leader presents to a follower after the follower demonstrates a desired behavior.
Membership Level
Individuals only give the required time and effort to the organization.
Performance Level
Individuals understand and appreciate the rewards and benefits of doing more than those at the membership level.
Involvement Level
Individuals are personally satisfied with their work and feel their personal needs and desires are being met.
Personal Rewards
Rewards come from within us. When we fully enjoy our work, we strive to exceed every standard and reward ourselves for a job well done.
System Level Rewards
Receive rewards just for being a member of the organization. Rewards such as pay, leave, medical and dental benefits.
Supervisory Rewards
Given to those who go beyond the standard, they include such things as praise, public recognition, time-off, bonus pay, promotions, etc.
Transactional Leadership
Tends to have a here and now task related focus. Centers on the transaction between the leader and the follower.
Transformational Leadership
runs deeper and focuses on a fundamental change in your followers professional character.
Need Theory
For a reward to be appropriate, accepted, and effective, it must fulfill a members needs such as need for achievement, need for affiliation, and need for power.
Operant Conditioning Theory
associates a specific behavior and a consequence for that behavior. Operant- “any active behavior that operates upon the environment to generate consequences”.
Situational Leadership Theory
Considers ones ability to complete a specific task and the use of four leadership styles to aid in his or her development.
Trait Leadership Theory
States that a person’s ability to lead depends on their intellect, self-confidence, determination, integrity, and social skills.
Skills Leadership Theory
Focuses on the argument that a person’s ability to lead depends on their emotional intelligence, awareness, and control.
Contingency Leadership Theory
Pairing a leader to a specific situation is the most effective method because leaders cannot adjust their behaviors.
This leadership is missing something…the leader.
Laissez-Faire
With this behavior, a contract is established between the leader and the follower.
Contingent Rewards
This leader is reactive rather than proactive and waits for things to go wrong.
Management by Exception-Passive
Followers trust and respect leaders who demonstrate this behavior because they “walk the walk”.
Idealized Influence
This behavior can be very effective if used appropriately and counterproductive if used excessively.
Management by Exception-Active
This attribute refers to a leader’s ability to visualize an achievable future and assist followers in developing a sense of purpose.
Inspirational Motivation
Leaders demonstrate this by treating their followers as individuals and supporting each one’s specific, developmental needs.
Individualized Consideration
This is what transformational leaders use to stimulate and encourage creativity and critical thought.
Intellectual Stimulation