Airway Management (ATI) class 48/49

Artificial Airway
any device inserted into the respiratory tract to facilitate breathing or secretion removal.
Alveolus
a small, air – containing sac – like dilation (out pouching) in the distal portions of the lungs where gases are exchanged with pulmonary capillary blood (plural: alveoli).
Atelectasis
airlessness or collapse of a lung, usually as a result of hypoventilation or obstruction.
Bronchiole
one of the subdivisions of the branched bronchial tree of the pulmonary system.
Bronchus
one of the larger passageways conveying air to and within the pulmonary system.
Chest Physiotherapy
a method of mobilizing pulmonary secretions by positioning the patient’s head downward to incline the trachea below the affected area and then applying percussion and vibration techniques; often used synonymously with postural drainage, although that term technically refers to drainage by gravity without percussion and vibration.
Cuff
referring to a tracheostomy, a cuff is a soft, inflatable balloon encircling the distal end of a tracheostomy tube.
Endotracheal (ET) Tube
a hollow tube inserted in the trachea to establish and maintain a patent airway.
Hypercapnia
an excess of carbon dioxide in the blood.
Hyperventilation
excessively rapid or deep breathing.
Hypoxemia
a diminished amount (reduced saturation) of oxygen in arterial blood.
Hypoxia
a reduced supply of oxygen to tissues below physiological levels despite adequate perfusion of the tissue by blood.
Intubation
the insertion of a tube into a body canal or cavity, as in endotracheal intubation.
Nasal Trumpet
a tube inserted through the nose and the pharynx to establish and maintain airway patency; also called a nasopharyngeal airway.
Nasopharyngeal Airway
tube inserted through the nose and the pharynx to establish and maintain airway patency; also called a nasal trumpet.
Nasopharynx
the portion of the pharynx (the passage between the mouth and posterior nares and the larynx and esophagus) that lies above the level of the soft palate.
Nasotracheal Tube
a hollow tube inserted through the nose into the trachea to establish and maintain a patient airway.
Obturator
a device used to guide the outer portion of a tracheostomy tube during insertion and removed immediately after the outer tube is in place.
Oropharyngeal Airway
a tube inserted through the mouth and the pharynx to establish and maintain airway patency.
Oropharynx
the part of the pharynx between the soft palate and the upper edge of the epiglottis.
Percussion
a chest physiotherapy technique that involves rhythmic clapping of cupped hands over various segments of the lungs to mobilize secretions.
Pharynx
the throat; the cavity between the nasal passages and the mouth.
Postural Drainage
a method of mobilizing pulmonary secretions by positioning the patient’s head downward to incline the trachea below the affected area and facilitating removal of secretions by gravity; often used synonymously with chest physiotherapy, although that term technically refers to incorporating vibration and percussion techniques along with positioning.
Respiratory Distress
in general, difficulty breathing, which can include any aspect of respiration: ventilation, perfusion or gas exchange for example.
Suction
negative force used to withdraw air, fluid, or secretions out of a body cavity or part.
Suction Catheter
a hollow, flexible tube passed into the airway to allow negative force to remove air, fluid and secretions.
Trachea
the cartilaginous and membranous tube that descends from the larynx and branches into the right and left main bronchi.
Tracheostomy
an opening created by a surgical incision into the trachea for the purpose of establishing and maintaining a patient airway.
Vibration
a chest physiotherapy technique that involves applying pressure and a shaking movement of the hand to various areas over the lungs to mobilize pulmonary secretions.
Yankauer Suction Catheter
a plastic or metal tube with a curve at the distal end to facilitate the removal of thick secretions during suctioning; also called a tonsil tip suction catheter.