Advanced ABO study material for taking Advanced ABO test

Question Answer
The eyebrow muscles Frontalis Muscle
Droopy eyelid Ptosis
Five layers of the cornea Epithelium, bowman’s layer, stroma, Descemet's Membrane, Endothelium
A semi-transparent, highly vascular, 1-2mm transition zone between cornea and the highly vascular sclera (corneo-scleral junction)it is composed of just 2 layers: the epithelium and the stroma The Limbus
The thin, transparent membrane that covers the sclera, is attached to the globe in this area, and the conjunctical epithelium transitions into the corneal epithelium there The Bulbar Conjunctiva
The two muscles that control the pupil Sphincter and Dilator Muscles. Dilator muscle runs radial through the iris, like bicycle spokes. The sphincter muscle lies around the very edge of the pupil
between the cornea and the iris Anterior Chamber
between the iris and the lens Posterior Chamber
Function of eyelids Protect the eye, control the amount og light entering the eye and provide tear and oxygen distribution
Palpebrae The Eyelids
Anatomy of the Eyelid Skin, muscle, fibrous tissue, and mucous membrane
Glands of the eyelids Meibomian glands (approx. 30) Pilosebaceous glands of zeis and the apocrine glands moll
Open onto the lid margine. Produce lipids, the oily outermost layer of the precorneal tear film, and prevent the tear film from evaporating too quickly. Their sebaceous secretions prevent overflow of tears and help to provide an airtight lid closure Meibomian glands
Sebaceous glands that contain ducts that open into the lash follicles The glands of zeis
Large sweat glands that open into the lash follicles and also secrete directly onto the lash margin between the cilia The glands of moll
Primary function of the eyelids Keep the eye moist through blinking action and to protect the eye. They help to rewet the corneal and conjunctival surfaces with the tear film.
Helps to distribute tears, oxygen, and nutrients as well as flush dirt and debris out of the eye toward the inner canthus Blinking
Thin, oval sheet of striated (striped) muscle, originates at the medial orbital margin and lacrimal sac and is innervated by cranial nerve VII. Its primary function is to close the eyelids, and aids passage and drainage of tears Orbicularis oculi muscle
a short, smooth muscle controlled by the sympathetic nerves that provides tone to the eyelids Mullers muscle
Epithelial layer of the skin, underlying skin layers, the layer of striated muscle, the sub muscular tissue, a fibrous layer, and a layer of smooth muscle Tissues of the eyelids
First is a fibrous tunic comprised of the cornea, sclera, and limbus. middle tunic is the vascular pigmented coat/tunic, comprised of the choroid, ciliary body, and iris. innermost tunic is an extension of the brain, nervous tunic, which is the retina The Tunics of the Eye
Buried within the limbus Trabecular meshwork
Esophoria Tendency of the eye to turn in
Exophoria Tendency of the eye to turn out
Hyperphoria Tendency of the eye to turn up
Hypophoria Tendency of the eye to turn down
The ability of the brain to form a single image by coordinating the movements of both eyes so that the visual images fall on corresponding areas of the retina both eyes Fusion
Orthophoria. (Ortho-correct) (Phoria-carrying) Eyes that are carried correctly. Proper extraocular muscle tonicity is maintained. Fusion takes place because an image is formed on corresponding points of each retina
Heterotropia (hetero-different) (tropia-turning) Turning in different directions. Strabismus, squint, crossed-eyes. Eccentric fixation in which the non-fixating Eye is turned in another direction, this retinal images fall on non-corresponding points of each retina
Strabismus A disorder in which the two eyes are not or can not be properly/correctly aligned. If untreated it can lead to amblyopia (lazy eye) requires appropriate evaluation and treatment
Condition in which vision in one eye deteriorates Amblyopia (lazy eye)
The most common causes of visual impairment in children Strabismus (crossed-eyes) and Amblyopia (lazy eye)
A term for loss of vision in one or both eyes with no organic pathological condition in the eyes or optic nerve Amblyopia
Exo Turning out
Eso Turning in
Hyper Above – Up
Hypo Below – down
Phoria Tendency to turn
Tropia Definite turning
Esotropia (cross-eyes) A misalignment of the eyes in which one or both eyes turn inward or nasally particularly seen with hypermetropia. This is also referred to as a convergent squint. The eye has a definite turning in. Boss-eyed
Exotropia (divergent strabismus) Turning laterally or temporally of one or both eyes. Walleyes
The amount of reflection off the surface of a CR-39 lenses is approximately 4%
The absorption of light in lenses is classified by two variables tint and lens transmission
The denser the tint in a lens The less transmission of light through the lens
Standard transmissions in sunlenses should range between 15% and 30%
If a person has exposure to sunlight at least 2 hours or more during the day Their ability to adapt to night vision is compromised if they don't protect their eyes from the sun exposure
A characteristic of a dark tinted glass lens with an RX of +4.00D sphere would be dark in the center and lighter on the lens
Which lens material would offer the best choice for uniform density in a sunlens given a high plus or minus RX CR-39 and Trivex
This popular color for sunlenses is not recommended for patients with emerging cataracts Grey
Adding this color to any color increases contrast yellow
Which color is better than Grey for improving contrast Green
Inorganic materials (metals or minerals) that are vacuum deposited to add color on glass lenses to give a uniform density of color vacuum color coatings
Company who introduced CR-39 lenses PPG Industries
Index of refraction of polycarbonate 1.59
Birefringence, also referred to as _______________can result in distortion reducing the visual performance to the wearer Double Refraction
Index of refraction of Trivex 1.53
Features and benefits of Trivex Superior optics, impact resistance, ultra light weight
visible glare can be dangerous because it can wash out colors and in some instances can cause __________ Photokeratitis
Polarized filters are made by stretching thin sheets of this in one meridian Polyvinyl alcohol
Two methods for orienting the polarized filters into lenses laminating and molded
what happens when light reaches a polarizing filter light in only one plane will pass through, having the other absorbed by the filter, thereby reducing glare
photochromic lenses were first introduced by which company and when corning in 1964
the first successful plastic photochromic lenses were introduced by which company and when transitions in 1991
Imbibed technology when the photochromic technology is on the surface of the lenses, ensuring that the color density is uniform throughout the lens
In-mass technology when the photochromic crystals are in the matrix of the material which distributes photochromic molecules throughout the lens, allowing a consistence and effective light response
how much UV is absorbed by a clear crown glass lens 9%
how much UV is absorbed by a grey #3 crown glass lens 82%
Dull duplicate images caused by internal reflections Ghost Images
What is the substrate underlying lens material
explaining the principles of optical interference, constructive wavelengths are lightwaves that are in phase, that build on one another such as mirror coating
explaining the principles of optical interference, destructive wavelengths are lightwaves that are out of phase, that cancel one another, such as AR coating

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