Adolescent Development Ch 7, 8, &13

Key concept in Kohlberg’s theory of moral development
1. How do adolescents reason, or think, about rules for ethical conduct?
2. How do adolescents actually behave in moral circumstances?
3. How do adolescents feel about moral matters?
4. What comprises an adolescent’s moral personality?
5. How is the adolescent’s moral domain different from the adolescent’s social conventional and personal domains?
Stages of Kohlberg’s theory of moral development
Stage 1. Punishment and Obedience Orientation.
Stage 2. Individualism, Instrumental Purpose and Exchange.
Stage 3. Mutual Interpersonal Expectation, Relationships and Interpersonal Conformity.
Stage 4. Social Systems Morality.
Stage 5. Social Contractor Utility and Individual Rights.
Stage 6. Universal Ethical Principle.
Levels of Kohlberg’s theory of moral development
Level 1. Preconventional Reasoning. ( I should do this because it’s right)
Level 2. Conventional Reasoning. ( Internalized, I should do this because it’s right. Externalize, I should do it because others think it’s right too)
Level 3. Postconventional Reasoning. ( Recognize alternatives, explore options, then do what personally/ internally I think is right.
The role of parenting in moral development
Children’s moral development was related to their parents’ discussion style, which involved questioning and supportive interaction.
Criticisms of Kohlberg’s theory
Moral reasoning versus behavior Some studies show a positive correlation between higher stages of reasoning and higher levels of moral behavior. However, some found that situational factors are better predictors of moral behavior.

Example: Research participants are more likely to steal when they are told the money comes from a large company rather than from individuals.

Cultural differences Cross-cultural comparisons of responses to Heinz’s moral dilemma (the drug stealing thing) show that Europeans and Americans tend to consider whether they like or identify with the victim in questions of morality. In contrast, Hindu Indians consider social responsibility and personal concerns two separate issues.

Possible gender bias Researcher Carol Gilligan has criticized Kohlberg’s model bc on his scale women often tend to be classified at a lower level of moral reasoning than men.
-Kohlberg’s theory emphasizes values more often held by men such as rationality and independence, and supposedly ignores common female values such as concern for others and belonging.

Gilligan’s theory based on what perspective of morality
The view of people in terms of their connectedness with others and emphasizes interpersonal communication, relationships with others, and concerns for others.
Gilligan’s view regarding how girls interpret moral dilemmas
View in terms of human relationships and base these interpretations on listening and watching other people.
Reciprocal nature of parent-adolescent relationships
Harsh, hostile parenting is associated with negative outcomes for adolescents, such as being defiant and opposing. That is, the parents harsh, hostile parenting and the adolescents defiant, oppositional behavior may mutually influence each other.
Indirect vs. direct effects of parental conflict
Direct effect of parental conflict is the influence of the parent’s behavior on the adolescent.
Indirect effect of parental conflict is how the relationship between the spouses mediates the ways a parent acts toward the adolescent.
Most stressful situations for adolescents during peak pubertal growth
1. Changes in schooling
2. Conflict with parents
3. Conflict with peers
4. Moving towards independence
Parents as managers
Researchers have founds that family-management practice are positively related to student’s grades and self-responsibility, and negatively to school related problems.
Impact of disclosure of adolescents’ daily activities to their parents
Researchers have found that adolescents’ disclosure to parents about their whereabouts, activities, and friends is linked to positive adolescent adjustment.
Types of parenting styles and their impact
Authoritarian- restrictive, punitive style. (adolescents with these parents are often anxious about social comparison, fail to initiate activity, and have poor communication skills.)
Authoritative- a style in which parents encourage adolescents to be independent but still place limits and controls on their actions. ( Adolescents with these parents are self-reliant and socially responsible.)
Neglectful- A style in which the parent is very uninvolved in the adolescent’s life. (Adolescents with these parents are socially incompetent; they show poor self- control and do not handle independence well.)
Indulgent- a style which parents are highly involved with their adolescent but place few demands or controls on them. (Adolescents with these parents are socially incompetent as well as lack self control.)
Which parent adolescents have more conflict
Mothers and Son, most stressful during the apex of pubertal growth.
Types of attachment and their impact on relationships
*Secure Attachment Style*: Adults have positive views of relationships, find it easy to get close to others, and are not overly concerned with or stressed out about their romantic relationships. These adults tend to enjoy sexuality in the context of a committed relationship and are less likely than others to have one-night stands.
*Avoidant Attachment Style*: Individuals are hesitant about getting involved in romantic relationships and once in relationships tend to distance themselves from their partner.
*Anxious Attachment Style*: These individuals demand closeness, are less trusting, and more emotional, jealous, and possessive.
Typical behaviors related to birth order
Firstborns are more intelligent, achieving and conscientiousness, while laterborns are more rebellious, liberal, and agreeable.
Percent of children born to married parents who will experience their parents’ divorce
40% of children.
Percent of children from divorced families who have emotional problems
25% of children.
Impact of high marital conflict on children
Non-divorced, Intact families who perceived the existence of high marital conflict between their parents engaged in more frequent and higher-risk sexual activity than their counterparts living in divorced families.
Challenges of parenting adopted children
supporting the adolescent’s search for identity and self.
Best time in the process to adopt children
Children and Adolescents who are adopted early in their lives are more likely to have positive outcomes than their counterparts adopted later in life.
Latchkey children
Typically don’t see their parents from the time they leave for school in the morning until after work hours. Although latchkey adolescents can be vulnerable to problems, experiences of latchkeys adolescents vary greatly.
Psychological factors in adolescent problems
Identity, personality traits, decision making, and self control.
Psychoanalytic theory of adolescent problems
*GBT*
Important factors in adolescent problems
Poverty; coming from a lower SES family, ineffective parenting, and mental disorders in parents
3 common components of successful programs for preventing adolescent problems
1. Intensive Individualized Attention
2. Community wide, multi-agency collaborative approaches.
3. Early Identification and Intervention
Developmental psychopathology approach to adolescent problems
Focuses on describing and exploring developmental pathways of problems. Many researches seek to establish links between early precursors of a problem (such as risk factors and early experiences) and outcomes (such as substance abuse, delinquency, and depression).
Links have been established between patterns of problems in childhood and outcomes in emerging adulthood.
Externalizing vs. internalizing problems
Externalizing problems: Occurs when individuals turn their problems outwards.
Internalizing problems: Occur when individuals turn their problems inward.
Daily hassles approach and its view of coping abilities
*GBT*
Psychologist conclude that information about daily hassles and daily uplifts provide better clues about effects of stressors then life events.
Success in coping has been linked with several characterists, including a sense of personal control, positive emotinos, and personal resources.
Gender differences related to stress
A recent study revealed no differences in the stress that adolescent girls and boys reported that they experienced related to school, self-related problems, leisure, and their future.
Females are less likely to respond to stressful and threatening situations with a fight or flight response than males.
Acculturative stress
The negative consequences that result from contact between two distinctive cultural groups
4 problems affecting the largest number of adolescents
1. Drug Abuse
2.Juvenile Delinquency
3. Sexual Problems
4. School- Related Problems
Emotion-focused vs. problem-focused coping
Emotion-Focused Coping: The strategy of squarely facing one’s troubles and trying to solve them.
Problem- Focused Coping: Responding to stress in an emotional manner, especially by using defense mechanisms.
Over the long term, through, problem- focused coping usually works better than emotion- focused coping.
Anorexia nervosa & effective treatment
An eating disorder that involves the relentless pursuit of thinness through starvation.
Family therapy is often the most effective treatment.
Bulimia nervosa
An eating disorder in which the individual consistently follows a binge-and- purge eating pattern.
Most commonly used drug by adolescents
Marijuana
Impact of parental alcohol use on adolescents
Fathers and mothers alcohol use predicts early alcohol use by their children.
Authoritative parenting is linked to lower adolescent alcohol consumption, while parent- adolescent conflict was related to higher adolescent alcohol consumption.
Active ingredient in marijuana
THC, T
Marijuana impacts on the body
*GBT*
Impairs attention and memory, it is not conductive to optimal school performance.
When cigarette smoking peaks
*GBT*
Adolescents, high school, and college.
19-22
MDMA known as what on the street
Ecstasy
Type of drug heroin is
This drug is a type of opiate.
Where adolescents obtain their prescription narcotics
Medicine cabinets of their parents or friends’ parents
Criteria for a conduct disorder diagnosis
The psychiatric diagnostic category used why multiple behaviors occur over a 6-month period, including truancy, running away, fire setting, cruelty to animals, breaking and entering, and excessive fighting.
Erikson’s view of delinquency
Delinquency is an attempt to establish an identity.
Criteria for a major depressive disorder
-Depressed mood most the day.
– Reduced interest or pleasure in all or most activities.
– significant weight loss or gain, or significant decrease or increase in appetite.
– Trouble sleeping or sleeping too much
– Psychomotor agitation or retardation
-Feeling worthless or guilty in an excessive or inappropriate manner
– Problems in thinking, concentrating, or making decisions
-Recurrent thoughts of death and suicide.
Best treatment for depression in adolescents
Antidepressants and receiving cognitive behavior therapy.
3rd leading cause of death for youth ages 10-19
Suicide
Measurement CDC uses for overweight and obese people
BMI, Body Mass Index
Percent risk for adolescents to be overweight if parents are overweight
70% chance.
Preconventional Reasoning
The lowest level in Kohlbergs theory of moral development. At this level, morality is focused on reward and punishment. The two stages in preconventional reasoning are punishment and obedience orientation (stage 1) and individualism, instrumental purpose, and exchange. (stage 2)
Conventional Reasoning
The second or intermediate, level in Kohlberg’s theory. Individuals abide by certain standards (internal), but they are the standards of others (external), such as parents or the laws of society. The conventional level consists of two stages: mutual interpersonal expectations, relationships, and interpersonal conformity (stage 3) and social systems morality (stage 4).
Postconventional Reasoning
The third and highest level in Kohlberg’s theory. At this level morality is more internal. The postconventional level consist of two stages; social contract or utility and individual rights (stage 5) and universal ethical principles (stage 6).
Justice Perspective
A moral perspective that focuses on the rights of the individual. Individuals are viewed as making moral decisions independently.
Care Perspective
The moral perspective of Carol Gilligan, which views people in terms of their contentedness with others and emphasizes interpersonal communication, relationships with others, and concern for others.
Reciprocal Socialization
The process by which children and adolescents socialize just as parents socialize.
AuthorITARIAN Parenting
A restrictive, punitive style.
AuthorITATATIVE Parenting
A style in which parents encourage adolescents to be independent but still place limits and controls on their actions.
Neglectful Parenting
A style in which the parent is very un-involved in the adolescents life.
Indulgent Parenting
A style in which parents are highly involved with their adolescents but place few demands or controls on them.
Secure Attachment
Involves a positive, enduring emotional bond between two people. In infancy, childhood, and adolescence, formation of a secure bond with a caregiver benefits the child’s exploration of the environment and subsequent development. In adulthood, the bond can also be between two people in a couple or marital relationship.
Insecure Attachment
Attachment pattern in which infants, children, and adolescents either avoid the caregiver or show considerable resistance or ambivalence toward the caregiver. This pattern is theorized to be related to difficulties in relationships and problems in later development.
Secure Attachment Style
Securely attached adults have positive views of relationships, find it easy to get close to others, and are not overly concerned with or stressed out about their romantic relationships. These adults tend to enjoy sexuality in the context of a committed relationship and are less likely than others to have one-night stands.
Avoidant Attachment Style
Avoidant individuals are hesitant about getting involved in romantic relationships and once in relationships tend to distance themselves from their partner.
Boundary Ambiguity
Uncertainty in stepfamilies about who is in or out of the family and who is performing or responsible for certain tasks in the family system.
Internalizing Problems
Internalizing problems: Occur when individuals turn their problems inward.
Externalizing Problems
Externalizing problems: Occurs when individuals turn their problems outwards.
Acculturative Stress
The negative consequences that result from contact between two distinctive cultural groups
Problem-Stress Coping
The strategy of squarely facing one’s troubles and trying to solve them.
Emotion-Focused Coping
Responding to stress in an emotional manner, especially by using defense mechanisms.
Hallucinogens
Also called psychedelic (mind altering) drugs; drugs that modify an individual’s perceptual experiences and produce hallucinations.
Stimulants
Drugs that increase the activity of the central nervous system. Ex: caffeine, nicotine, amphetamines, and cocaine.
Depressants
Drugs that slow down the central nervous system, bodily functions, and behaviors.
Index Offenses
Acts such as robbery, rape, and homicide that are crimes regardless of whether they are committed by juveniles or adults.
Status Offenses
Juvenile offense, performed by youth under a specified age, that are not as serious as index offenses, These offenses may include acts such as underage drinking, truancy, and sexual promiscuity.
Juvenile Delinquency
A broad range of behaviors, including socially unacceptable behavior, status offenses, and criminal acts.
Conduct Disorder
The psychiatric diagnostic category used why multiple behaviors occur over a 6-month period, including truancy, running away, fire setting, cruelty to animals, breaking and entering, and excessive fighting.
Major Depressive Disorder
The diagnosis when an individual experiences a major depressive episode and depressed characteristics, such as lethargy and depression, for two weeks or longer and daily functioning becomes impaired.
Stress
The response of individuals to stressors, which are circumstances and events that threaten and tax their coping abilities.
Coping
Managing taxing circumstances, expending effort to solve life’s problems, and seeking to master or reduce stress.