Administrative Management Final Exam Review

strategic management
overall, long-run management
strategic planning
the process of making plans and decisions that are focused on long-run performance.
strategic analysis
an assessment of the external and internal environments of an organization.
Operational planning
the process of determining the day-to-day activities that are necessary to achieve the long term goals of the organization.
job description
details of the responsibilities and tasks required by a job.
demand forecasting
determining the number of employees that the organization will need in the future as well as the knowledge, skills, and abilities these employees must possess.
supply forecasting
determining what human resources will be available both inside and outside the organization.
finding and attracting qualified job candidates.
organizational culture
the shared beliefs, values, and norms in an organization.
the ability to absorb high levels of disruptive change
forces either internal or external to a person that act as inducements or that influence action to do something.
needs-based approach
motivational model that focuses on a person’s needs as motivators.
process approach
motivational model that focuses on understanding the thought process in influencing motivation.
reinforcement approach
motivational model based on learning and examine how consequences mold behavior.
a social influence process to influence people to achieve a common goal.
the ability to use human, informational, or material resources to get something done.
an enduring pattern of an individual’s behavior.
organizational design
the way in which the activities of an organization are arranged and coordinated so that its mission can be achieved.
organizational structure
a phrase referring to the primary reporting relationships that exist within an organization.
functional structure
a structure in which tasks and jobs are grouped according to the function they perform within the organization.
divisional structure
a structure in which members of the organization are grouped on the basis of common products, geographic markets, or customers served.
product divisional structure
a structure in which the activities of the organization are grouped according to specific products or product lines.
geographic divisional structure
a structure in which the activities of the organization are grouped according to the geographic markets served.
customer divisional structure
an organizational structure focused on customer groups.
matrix structure
a technique that arranges work groups on two dimensions simultaneously.
network structure
an organization that has a core coordinating with other organizations or organizational units.
internal network
a network structure that relies on internally developed units to provide services to a core organizational unit.
stable network
a network structure that continually uses a set of alliance partners.
dynamic network
a network structure that makes extensive use of outsourcing through alliances with outside organizations.
self-managed teams
a group of employees who design their jobs and work responsibilities to achieve the self-determined goals and objectives of the team.
skill variety
the degree to which a job challenges the jobholder to use various skills and abilities.
the degree to which a job includes freedom, independence, and decision-making authority.
job design
the set of tasks and activities that are grouped together to define a particular job.
classical persepctive
which school of management thought is the oldest?
classical perspective
which school of thought had its roots in the manufacturing industry?
scientific management
a perspective on management that focuses on the productivity of the individual worker.
who is known as the father of scientific management?
time-motion studies
identify and measure a worker’s physical movements while the worker performs a task and then analyze the results to determine the best way of performing each task.
who thought that money was the main motivator for workers?
who thought managers should practice ‘functional foremanship’?
Frank Gilbreth
who specialized in time-and-motion studies?
Lillian Gilbreth
who specialized in improving working conditions?
Henri Fayol
who is associated with administrative management?
planning, organizing, commanding, coordinating, and controling
what are the five functions of management according to Fayol?
which branch of classical managerial thought focuses on the productivity of the individual worker?
which branch of classical managerial thought focuses on the functions of the manager?
which branch of classical managerial thought focuses on the overall function of the organizational system?
who is associated with the bureaucratic school of classical management thought?
which classical managerial school of thought focuses on division of labor, hiearchy of authority, rules and procedures, impersonality, and employee selection?
who believed that coordination was the key to good management?
who argued that subordinates should be involved in the decision making process?
who made early contributions in the field of conflict management?
division of work
by dividing the work into smaller elements and assigning specific workers, the work can performed more effeciently and more productively.
authority and responsibility
authority is necessary to carry out managerial responsibilities.
to ensure the smooth operation of the business, it is essential that members of the organization respect the rules that govern it.
unity of command
to avoid conflicting instructions and confusion, each employee should recieve orders from only one superior
unity of direction
similar activities within an organization should be coordinated under and directed by one person.
subordination of individual interest to the common good
the goals of the organization should take precedence over the interests of the employees
remuneration of personnel
financial compensation for work done should be fair to the employee and also to the organization.
power and authority should be concentrated into upper levels of the organization with authority lying in managers.
scalar chain
a single, uninterrupted chain of authority should extend from top level to the lowest position in the organization.
materials should always be in the right place at the right time.
managers should display friendliness and fairness
stability of personnel tenure
high rates of employee turn over are ineffecient
subordinates should be given the freedom to take initiative in carrying out their work.
espirit de corps
team spirit and harmony should be promoted among workers to create a sense of organizational unity.