ACSM – Nutrition and Weight Management 1

What does the CDC define as being overweight?
– body weight that is higher than what is considered healthy for specific height.
Describe what body comp is and what lean muscle and body fat are made up of.
– Estimated total lean mass = total body mass – fat mass
– Percent fat is amount of total body weight that is fat only, based on body comp assessment
– Lean = muscle, bone, water, blood
– Fat = subcutaenous, intraabdominal, intramuscular fat
How is body comp assessed and list the % error with each test?
– skinfold calipers – higher error
– bioelectrical impedence – higher error
– hydrostatic weighing – 1-3%
– dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry – 1-3%
– air displacement plethysmography – 1-3%
How is BMI determined and when should it be used?
– body weight (kg)/body height (m)2
– should be used to comopare large data sets in research studies or to examine BMI over time
Define anorexia nervosa
– clinically diagnosed eating disorder exemplified by very thin physical appearance
– body weight at least 15% below lowest value expected
– BMI <= 17.5 kgm2
Describe some characteristics of anorexia nervosa
– energy intake too low to maintain normal body weight
– intense obsession with food and portions
– distorted self-body image
– intense fear of weight gain or becoming fat
Describe health complications associated w/ anorexia nervosa
– osteoporosis
– menstrual irregularities
– electrolyte imbalance
– cardiac arrhythmia
– loss of muscle mass
What population typically suffers from anorexia nervosa?
– females
– males that participate in sports that require weight limits
– whites
– high school/college age groups
Define bulimia nervosa
– clinically diagnosed eating disorder
– body weight could be underweight, overweight or normal weight
– involves binging (eating large amounts over small period of time at least 2x/wk for several months) and purging (vomiting, use of laxatives, excessive exercise, sauna suits, diuretics)
Describe some health complications related to bulimia nervosa
– gastrointestinal disturbance
– wearing away of teeth enamel
– pancreatitis
– electrolyte imbalance
– esophageal rupture
What population typically suffers from bulimia nervosa?
– females
– males that participate in sports that require weight limits
– whites
– high school/college age groups
What are the risks associated with high body fat?
– diabetes
– coronary artery disease
– heart failure
– stroke
– pancreatic, colon, breast and prostate cancer
-sleep apnea
-arthritis
-hypertension
What are the risks associated with low body fat?
Affiliated with diseases such as:
– eating disorder
– digestive disease
– cancer
– type 1 diabetes or other metabolic disorder
Describe an android/central pattern of body fat distribution
– Apple shaped
– body fat located most in ab region vs. hips/thighs
more common in men
Describe the gynoid pattern of body fat distribution
– pear shaped
– body fat located in hips/thighs vs abs
– more common in women
Define Waist-to-Hip ratio.
– waist circumference/hip circumference
– Values of WHR >0.95 in men and >0.86 in women associated w/ higher risk of type 2 diabetes, CAD, and hypertension
Why is waist circumference a more more important measurement than WHR?
– better estimate of ab obesity
– waist circumference >40″ in men and >35″ in women increases risk of chronic disease
List some health risks associated with central/abdominal obesity
– more strongly correlated w/ metabolic risk factors than just overweight or obesity
– insulin resistance
– high BP
– elevated fasting blood glucose levels
-dsylipidemia
Define metabolic syndrome
– used when several coronary artery disease risk factors occur at same time in combo w/ ab obesity
increases risk factors associated w/ CV disease
– management include lifestyle changes in diet and exercise, quitting smoking and medications
How does one go about losing weight?
– 1 lb = 3500 cals
– to lose 1 lb of fat/week an energy deficit of 500 cals/day from diet along with a surplus energy expenditure of 500 cals/day must be met
– weight-loss greater than 2lbs/week isn’t recommended and may result in decreased resting metabolic rate
What is the best way to create a caloric surplus using exercise?
– aerobic activities
– 1 mile of walking or jogging expends 100 cals
– person would have to walk/jog 5 miles/day w/o making changes in their diet
What are some appropriate methods to help a person reach their weight-loss goals?
– Using Transtheoretical model
– Utilizing social congnitive theory concepts
What is the safest and most effective way to lose weight?
– eat healthy foods while consuming fewer total total daily cals
– performing regular aerobic physical activity
– maintaining or increasing lean body mass through resistance training
List and describe some inappropriate methods for weight-loss.
1) Spot reduction – exercising particular body part
2) Saunas, sweat suits, body wraps – weight loss occurs due to fluid loss, but cause electrolyte imbalances from dehydration
3) Vibrating belts – pass mvmt device that is said to break down fats
4) Electrical stimulators – rely of spot reduction, which is ineffective
5) Fad and starvation diets – packaged foods, supplements, food exclusions
Why are fad and starvation diets inappropriate for weight loss?
– all diets lead to weight loss when energy intake is reduced
– loss of lean body mass occurs b/c of lowered metabolic rate
– nutritional deficiencies occur b/c of reduction or elimination of foods
– longer-term maintenance and efficacy are unknown