Accounting Information Systems Midterm chapter 5

Application approach to business event processing
Under this approach each application collects and manages its own data, generally in dedicated, separate, physically distinguishable files for each application.
Data redundancy
Data stored in multiple locations within a system
Database approach to business event processing
In this approach, facts about the events are stored in relational database tables instead of separate files, which solves many of the problems caused by data redundancy
Database management (DBMS)
A set of integrated programs designed to simplify the tasks of creating, accessing, and managing data.
Database independence’s
Decoupling of data from the system applications (Making the data independent of the application). A major difference between the database approach and the applications approach.
Schema
A complete description of the configurations of record types, data items, and the relationships among them.
Subschema
A description of a portion of a schema
query language
A language used to access a database and to produce inquiry reports
Hierarchy data base model
A logical data base model where records are organized and impairment structure, and no child record may have more than one parent record. All relationships are 1:N
Child record
In a hierarchical DBMS, Records included in a record one level above them
Parent records
Records that include the lower level child records within a hierarchal DBMS
Network data base model
A logical database model that handles complex data structures, such as a child record that has more than one parent record.
Relationship database model
a logical model for a database in which data are logically organized into dimensional tables. Each individual type of information or events is stored in its own table.
Object oriented data base model
Hey model that allows the storage of both simple and complex objects(including items such as video, audio and pictures). Characteristics also include inheritance and encapsulation
Object relational databases
Relational DBMS framework with the capacity to store complex datatypes.
Tables
And elements that makes up DBMSs. A place to store data
Queries
An elements of a DBMS that allows users and programmers to access the data stored in various tables
Forms (DBMS)
On screen presentations of data in tables and queries
Reports
And elements that makes DBMSs, that provides printed list and summaries of data stored in tables for collected by queries from one or more tables.
Primary key
The unique identifier for each row of a table (or record within a file) serves as an address for the row.
Composite primary keys
The primary key formed by combining two or more columns in the table.
Classifying
The process of grouping or categorizing data according to common attributes
Coding
The creation of a substitute values, or codes
Sequential Coding
or
serial coating
Assigns numbers to objects in chronological sequence; Also known as serial coating
Block Coding
Groups of numbers are dedicated to particular characteristics of the objects being identified
Significant digit coding
assigns specific digits a meaning of their own, allowing selective inquiries of a database
Hierarchical coding
Hierarchical codes attach specific meaning to particular character positions. Hierarchal Coding orders items in descending order, where each successive rank order is a subset of the rank above
Mnemonic Coding
Coding in which some or all of that identifying characters are letters of the alphabet.
Self checking digit code
A code that includes an extra digit that can be used to check the accuracy of the code.
Normal forms
Rules based on set theory, the branch of mathematics on which relational database models are based. These roles include specifications that must be met by a relational database tables.
Anomalies
Errors that otherwise might occur when adding, changing, or deleting data stored in the database
Functional dependent
An attribute is functionally dependent on another attribute (or a collection of other attributes) if a value for the first attribute determines a single value for the second attribute at any time
unnormalized table
Contains repeating attributes or fields within each row or record
First nominal form (1NF)
In relation is in 1NF if it’s tables do not contain repeating groups
Update anomalies
Errors created when modifying data within a system. One of many problems caused by functional dependencies.
Partial dependency
A problem that arises because an attribute is dependent on a portion of the primary key and not on the entire key.
Second nominal form (2NF)
A table(Relation) is in 2NF if it is in the first nominal form and has no partial dependencies; that is, no non-key attributes is dependent on only a portion of the primary key.
Non-key attributes
An attribute that is not part of the primary key
Transitive dependency
Exists in a table when a non-key attribute is functionally dependent on another non-key attribute
Third nominal form (3NF)
A relation is in 3NF if this is in second normal form with no transitive dependencies
Data model
a model that depicts user requirements for data stored in a database
Entity relationship modeling
A data modeling approach in which the designer identifies the important things(called entities) about which information will be stored and then identifies how the things are related to each other(called relationships).
Entity
Any object, event, or agent about which data are collected
Relationship (junction) tables
Tables with composite primary keys that connect(joint) tables in a many-to-many relationship
Entity relationship model
A diagram of the relational model that includes entities and relationships
Entity relationship diagram (E-R Diagram)
Reflects the systems key entities and the relationships among those entities.
Resources
Assets (tangible or intangible) that an organization owns
Events
Occurrences related to resources that are of interest to the business
Agents
People or organizations that participate in events
Locations
Places or physical locations at which events occur, what resources are stored, or agents participate in events
Cardinality
A characteristic and each relationship that shows the degree to which each entity participates in the relationship.
Maximum cardinality
A measure of the highest level of participation that one entity can have in another entity
Decision support system (DSS)
Information systems that assist managers with unstructured decisions by retrieving and analyzing data for purposes of identifying and generating useful information
Executive information systems (EIS)
or
executive support system (ESS)
A subset of DSS, these systems combine information from the organization and the environment, organize and analyze the information, and present the information to the manager or any form of that assists in decision-making; Also called executive support system or ESS
Group support systems (GSS)
/
Groups decision support systems (GDSS)
Computer-based systems that support collaborative intellectual work such as idea generation, collaboration, analysis, synthesis, information sharing, and decision-making. GSS/GDSS use technology to solve the time and space to mention problems associated with group work.
Groupware
The software identified with GSS, focuses on such functions e-mail, group scheduling and document sharing.
Expert systems (ES)
Rule-based systems that emulate the problem solving techniques of human experts. Appropriate when decisions are extremely complex, consistency of decision-making is desirable, and the decision maker wants to minimize time spent making the decision while maximizing the quality of the decision
Neural Networks (NN)
Computer hardware and software systems that mimic the human brain’s capability to recognize patterns or project outcomes using less than complete information
Intelligent agent
a software program that may be integrated into A DSS or other software tool(Such as word processing, spreadsheet, or database packages) that’s provides automated assistance, advice, and/or information for decision-making.
Knowledge management
The process of capturing, storing, retrieving, and distributing the knowledge of the individuals in an organization for use by others in the organization to improve the quality and efficiency of decision-making across the firm
Data warehousing
The use of information systems facilities to focus on the collection, organization, integration, and long-term storage of entity wide data. Data warehousing provides users with easy access to large quantities of varied data from across an organization to improve decision-making capabilities.
Data mining
The exploration, aggregation, and analysis of a large quantities of varied data from across the organization. Used to better understand the business processes, trends, and opportunities to improve efficiency and effectiveness, as well as to discover anomalies