-Strong brand image and strong IMC programs
-Marketing Strategy & Analysis
-Target Marketing Process
-Marketing Planning Program Development
-Promotion to Final Buyer
-Strategic Marketing Plan:
>Target Market Selection
>Competitive analysis… can range from direct brand competition to more indirect forms of competition, such as product substitutes. The goal is to find a competitive advantage.
>Target market selection… after evaluating the opportunities identified during the opportunity and competitive analysis, a company must select one or more target markets. This target market becomes the focus of the firm’s marketing effort, and has direct implications for advertising and promotional efforts.
-Identify markets with unfulfilled needs
-Determine market segmentation
-Select a market to target
-Position through marketing strategies
>Determine market segmentation dividing a market into distinct groups that have common needs and will respond similarly to a marketing action.
>Select a market to target – determining how many segments to enter, and which segments offer the most potential.
>Position through marketing strategies – the art and science of fitting the product or service to one or more segments of the broad market in such a way as to set it apart from the competition
Ex:This would be a good time to show the Kraft Foods Philly Cream Cheese video commercial, which targeted an Hispanic audience.
Isolate Consumer with similar….
-W/ common needs
-who respond similarly to a marketing situation
– Companies have developed program target to customer is a specific region of the country. In this case, Big Red is a successful regional “cult” brand in Texas
Ex: In this case, AT&T is offering worldwide cell phone coverage.
>Who might be included in this market segment?
– (Business travelers, people going overseas on vacation, etc.)
>What other types of products can students think of that are marketed on the basis of benefits? (Examples: toothpaste, low-energy light bulbs, running shoes, etc.)
-The chart shown here was developed by Nielsen Claritas. It provides demographic and psychographic profiles of geographic areas as small as census track, block group, or zip code +4. Users of this system include Ace Hardware, Walmart, and AOL, among others.
All of the following are considered market coverage alternatives except:
2.Determine which segments have the greatest potential
-Undifferentiated marketing… ignores segment differences and offers just one product or service to the entire market.
-Differentiated marketing… involves marketing in a number of segments, but developing separate marketing strategies for each.
-Concentrated marketing… involves selecting and trying to capture a large share of a single segment.
Ex: Lifewater, as shown in this ad, positions itself as a vitamin-rich water.
-include Fiji Water, which is bottled on the island of Fiji, and Perrier, which positions itself as a luxury item.
-Point out that waters may also be marketed as spring, mineral, purified, flavored, carbonated, or health-related, and good packaging can command a premium price
-Attributes & Benefits
>Attributes/Benefits – a common approach is setting the brand apart from competitors on the basis of specific characteristics or benefits. Marketers attempt to identify salient benefits, which are those that are important to customers when making purchase decisions
>Price/Quality – using price as characteristic of the brand. If a product is positioned as high quality, price may be a secondary consideration. Another option is to focus on product quality or value offered at a competitive price.
>Use/Application – associate the brand with a specific use. This approach can be an effective way to expand usage of a product.
>Product Class – positioning your product against a product in another category, rather than against a competitor. For example, positioning frozen orange juice against fresh oranges.
>Product User – associating a brand with a type of person or group that uses a product or service.
>Competitor – positioning a company or brand against a competitor. Often another form of positioning is used as well to differentiate the brand.
>Cultural Symbols – using a cultural symbol to differentiate a product from competitors (e.g. Keebler elves, the Jolly Green Giant, Tony the Tiger).
>Repositioning-involves altering or changing the position of a product or brand, and usually occurs because of stagnant or declining sales.
>Price decisions-what can and should be charged
>Distribution Channels- direct or indirect
>Promotional Strategy- push or pull
-Build & maintain brand awareness and interest
-Develop & enhance attitudes toward the company, product, or service
-Build & foster relationships between the consumer and the brand
-Brand Identity vs. Brand Equity
Combination of the name, logo, symbols, design, packaging, and image associations held by the consumer
Added value or goodwill
Results from the favorable image, impressions of differentiation, and/or the strength of consumer attachment to a company name, brand name, or trademark
-Brand name commun-icates attributes and meaning
-Advertising creates and maintains brand equity
-Has become increasingly important
-Often the customers’ first exposure to product
communicate, hold the consumer’s attention, and differentiate a brand from competitors.
-Factors the firm must consider
-What consumers give up to buy a product or service
-A firm must consider a number of factors in determining the price it charges for its product or service, including costs, demand factors, competition, and perceived value. It must also consider what the ultimate consumer is willing to give up to purchase the product or service
-From an IMC perspective, the price must be consistent with the perceptions of the product, as well as the communications strategy.
-What consumers give up to buy a product or service:
>It is important to point out that a product positioned as high quality while carrying a lower price than competitors will confuse customers.
-Price must be consistent withperceptions of the product
-Higher prices communicatehigher product quality
-Lower prices reflect bargainor “value” perceptions
-Price, advertising, and distribution must be unified in identifying product position
What to consider?
-Is the product better suited to distribution through Neiman Marcus or Kmart?
-What types of displays are available and needed in the store?
-What type of point-of-purchase merchandising is possible?
-How much shelf space is available, and where?
-Point out that distributing products via a channel is optional… some companies sell directly to consumers, bypassing the middle-man
-Driven by direct-response ads, telemarketing, the Internet
-Often used when selling expensive and complex products
-Network of wholesalers and/or retailers
Ex: Many companies successfully use direct marketing, including Avon, Tupperware, and Mary Kay.
-However, most consumer-product companies distribute through indirect channel
-Usually a network of wholesalers that sell to retailers, or retailers who sell directly to the consumer.
>Pull strategy… involves spending money on advertising and sales promotion efforts directed toward the ultimate consumer. The goal of a pull strategy is to create consumer demand, which encourages retailers to request the product from the retailer.
An ad in a publication aimed at veterinarians explains why they should recommend Eukanuba cat food to the owners of the cats they treat. This is an example of:
A) Consumer advertising
B) A promotional pull strategy
C) A harvesting strategy
D) A consumer promotion
E) A promotional push strategy