Abnormal Psychology Chapter 3

Psychotherapy
the use of psychological techniques and the therapist-client relationship to produce emotional, cognitive, and behavior change; four types: biological, psychodynamic, cognitive-behavioral, humanistic
Psychopharmacology
the use of medications to treat psychological disturbances
Electroconvulsive Therapy
involves deliberately inducing a seizure by passing electricity through the brain; Bilateral: through both temples; Unilateral: through one temple
Retrograde Amnesia
a loss of memory of past events
Psychosurgery
the surgical destruction of specific regions of the brain
Prefrontal Lobotomy
a now completely discredited procedure irrevocably severing the frontal lobes of the brain
Cingulotomy
lesioning pinpointed regions of the cingulate cortex, may help very severe cases of OCD
Catharsis
the release of pent-up emotions
Free-Association
patients being instructed to speak freely about whatever thoughts crossed their mind
Psychodynamic Psychotherapy
more engaged and directive, treatment may be relatively more brief
Psychoanalysis
Freudian theory which relied heavily on free-association; also analyzed dreams and slips of the tongue
Insight
bringing formerly unconscious material into conscious awareness
Interpretation
analysts suggesting hidden meanings to patients accounts of their life; relate to past experiences, especially experiences with loved ones
Therapeutic Neutrality
maintaining a distant stance toward the patient in order to minimize the therapist’s personal influence
Transference
the process whereby patients transfer their feelings about some key figure in their life onto the shadowy figure
Ego Analysis
Places importance on the ego’s role in dealing with conflicts between the id and the superego as well as with reality
Interpersonal Therapy
an evidence-based treatment that focuses on changing emotions and styles of interacting in close relationships
Cognitive-Behavior Therapy
uses various research-based techniques to help troubled clients learn new ways of thinking, acting and feeling
Behaviorism
the view that the appropriate focus of psychological study is observable behavior
Systematic Desensitization
developed by Joseph Wolpe; a technique for eliminating fears that has three key elements
Progressive Muscle Relaxation
a method of inducing a calm state by tightening and then relaxing all the major muscle groups
Learning Process
maintaining relaxation while confronting ever-increasing fears
In Vivo Desensitization
gradually confronting fears in real life while simultaneously maintaining a state of relaxation
Flooding
confronting fears at full intensity
Aversion Therapy
therapy in which the goal is to create, not eliminate, an unpleasant response
Contingency Management
directly changes rewards and punishments for identified behaviors; goal is to reward desirable behavior systematically and to extinguish or punish undesirable behavior
Contingency
The relationship between a behavior and its consequences
Social Skills Training
therapy in which the goal is to teach clients new ways of behaving that are both desirable and likely to be rewarded in everyday life
Assertiveness Training
teaches clients to be direct about their feelings and wishes
Social Problem Solving
a multi-step process that has been used to teach children and adults ways to go about solving a variety of life’s problems
Attribution Retraining
based on the idea that people are intuitive scientists who are constantly drawing conclusions about the causes of events in their lives; involves changing attributions, often by asking clients to abandon intuitive strategies in favor of more scientific methods
Self-Instruction Training
says instructions out loud while completing the task and slowly evolves to doing it silently; designed as a way of developing internalization
Beck’s Cognitive Therapy
1976 developed specifically as a treatment for depression; suggested that depression is caused by errors in thinking; depressed people see the world through grey colored glasses
Rational-Emotive Therapy
1962 theory by Albert Ellis; emotional disorders are caused by irrational beliefs, absolute, unrealistic views of the world
Dialectical Behavior Therapy
a treatment for borderline personality disorder, includes an emphasis on mindfulness
Acceptance and Commitment Therapy
a values-oriented approach used in treating a variety of disorders, encourages accepting oneself, not just on making changes
Humanistic Therapy
developed as a third force in psychotherapy, a counterpoint to both psychodynamic and cognitive-behavior therapy; re-emphasizes the human as an individual in charge of making choices and shaping their own future
Client-Centered Therapy
theory of carl rogers; took a strong stand that three qualities were necessary and sufficient for therapeutic change: warmth, genuineness, and particularly empathy: emotional understanding
Therapist Self Disclosure
revealing some personal experiences and feelings as a way of helping clients better understand themselves
Psychotherapy Outcome Research
examines the outcome, or result, or psychotherapy- it’s effectiveness for relieving symptoms, eliminating disorders, and/or improving life function
Meta-Analysis
a statistical procedure that allows researchers to combine the results from different studies in a standardized ways
Spontaneous Remission
they improve without any treatment at all
The Placebo Effect
the powerful healing produced by inert treatments
Double-Blind Study
investigation in which neither the patient nor the physician know whether the pill is real of a placebo
Efficacy
whether the treatment can work under prescribed circumstances
Effectiveness
whether the therapy does work in the real world
YAVIS
young, attractive, verbal, intelligent, and successful; clients are more successful when they have these traits
Psychotherapy Process Research
an approach that examines what aspects of the therapist-client interaction account for better outcomes
Motivational Interviewing
a contemporary examples of the importance of common factors; designed as a placebo, but proved to be effective; contains active ingredients of empathy, instilling interpersonal spirit, and eliciting promises of change
Couples Therapy
involves seeing intimate partners together in therapy
Family Therapy
Might include multiple family members in a treatments designed to improve communication, negotiate conflicts, and perhaps change relationships and roles
Parent Management Training
an approach that teaches parents new skills for child rearing
Group Therapy
involves treating several people facing similar emotional problems of life issues
Community Psychology
one approach within clinical psychology that attempts to improve individual well being by promoting social change
Primary Prevention
tries to improve the environment in order to prevent new cases of a mental disorder from developing; goal is to promote wellness, not just to treat illness
Secondary Prevention
focuses on the early detection of emotional problems in the hope of preventing them from becoming more serious
Tertiary Prevention
intervention which occurs after the illness has been identified