Abnormal Psych ch. 2

historical view of mental illness/abnormal behavior
caused by demon that had taken “possession” of person
treated through exorcism, prayers, incantations, or concoctions
Hippocrates’s 3 categories of mental disorders
1) mania
2) melancholia
3) phrentis (brain fever)
best known earliest paradigms for explaining personality/temperament and typologies of human behavior
-doctrine of 4 humors, associated with Hippocrates and later Galen
-4 essential fluids of body: blood (sanguis), phlegm, bile (choler), and black bile (melancholer)
Hippocrates’ early medical concept of mental illness
mental disease result of natural causes and brain pathology
-emphasis on natural causes of diseases, on clinical observation, and on brain pathology
Galen’s contribution to the understanding of mental illness
Galen’s original contributions:
-the anatomy of the nervous system
-scientific approach to field, dividing causes of psychological disorders into physical and mental categories
first mental hospital was established…
…in Baghdad in A.D. 792
2 trends in the Middle Ages that influenced growth in popularity of supernatural explanations of causes of mental illness
1) Mass madness
2) exorcism
Mass madness
wide-spread occurrence of group behavior disorders that were apparently cases of hysteria (i.e. dancing mania)
tarantism
uncontrollable impulse to dance; often attributed to bite of tarantula or wolf spider
-also known as “Saint VItus’s Dance”
-example of mass madness in Middle Ages
Saint Vitus’s Dance
dancing mania
lycanthropy
condition where people believed themselves to be possessed by wolves and imitated their behavior
Islamic physician famous for treating mental disorders with humane practices
Avicenna
modern examples of mass hysteria
1) West Bank Palestinian girls, April 1983
2) men in Nigeria believing their genitals had vanished, 1990
exorcisms
“laying on of hands” in order to rid person of demon possessing them
management of mentally disturbed in Middle Ages Europe was handled mainly by
clergy
2 types of demonically possessed people in Middle Ages
1) physically possessed: considered mad
2) spiritually possessed: considered witches
Paracelsus
Swiss physician and early critic of superstitious beliefs about possession
-yet believed moon exerted supernatural influence over brain
Johann Weyer
German physician who made a study of abuse of those accused of witchcraft & argued these people suffered from mental illness
-one of first physicians to specialize in mental disorders
asylums
sanctuaries for care of mentally ill; began to grow in number in 16th century
-earliest were begun as way of removing troublesome individuals who couldn’t care for themselves from society
-primarily modifications of penal institutions, where patients were inmates and were inhumanely treated
French physician responsible for initiating reform of mental hospitals
Philippe Pinel
English Quaker who also promoted humane treatment and reform of mental hospitals, and the name of his hospital
William Tuke, who established the York Retreat
American who championed humane treatment of mentally ill
Benjamin Rush
the moral management approach to treatment during humanitarian reform period involved
focus on patient’s social, individual, and occupational needs
moral management was popular during humanitarian reform period in part because
very little effective treatment was available for mental conditions at the time
moral management movement was replaced by ________________
rise of the mental hygiene movement
mental hygiene movement
focused almost exclusively on physical well-being of hospitalized mental patients
-patients received no help for their mental problems, and became more helpless and dependent on hospital
which was shown more effective in terms of discharge rates, moral management or mental hygiene approach to care?
moral management
campaigner for mentally ill who helped establish legislature reforms and 32 mental hospitals
Dorthea Dix
a nineteenth century term for medical professions who treated the “alienated” or insane
alienists