4B0X1, Block 8

Homeland Security Presidential Directive 5
Directed the creation of a single, comprehensive national incident management system; also directed the creation of the National Response Plan
National Response Plan
The basis for the current framework the US uses to respond to national emergencies at the Federal, State, local and tribal levels
Air Force Emergency Management program
The single, integrated Air Force program to coordinate and organize efforts to prepare for, prevent, respond to, recover from, and mitigate the direct and indirect consequences of an emergency or attack
AFI 10-2501
Implements the Air Force Incident Management System (AFIMS) based on NIMS methodology; also defines BE responsibilities for emergency response
Primary missions of the Air Force EM program
Save lives, minimize the loss or degradation of resources, and continue, sustain, and restore combat and combat support operational capability in an “all-hazards” physical threat environment at Air Force installations worldwide
Ancillary missions of the Air Force EM program
Support homeland defense and emergency preparedness, along with provide support to civil and host-nation authorities IAW DoD directives and through the appropriate Combatant Command
National Incident Management System (NIMS)
Provides a nationwide template that enables Federal, State, local, tribal governments, private sector, and non-governmental organizations to work together effectively and efficiently to prevent, prepare for, respond to, and recover from domestic incidents regardless of cause, size or complexity
Air Force Incident Management System (AFIMS)
Provides the Air Force with an incident management system that is consistent with a single, comprehensive approach to domestic incident management; a scalable and flexible response to organize field-level operations for a broad spectrum of emergencies
Five major functional areas of the Incident Command System (ICS)
Command, operations, planning, logistics, and finance / administration
Operations
Typically, BE falls under the ____________ section during an emergency response
Strategic and Tactical
The main elements of the Air Force Emergency Management Program
Disaster Response Force (DRF)
The structure for response operations at the installation level
Unit Control Center (UCC)
Provides a focal point within an organization to maintain unit command and communications (C2), relay information to and from unit personnel, provide expertise to the EOC or Incident Commander, and leverage unit resources to respond to and mitigate the incident
Medical Control Center (MCC)
The medical group’s unit control center is called the ___________
Incident Commander (IC)
The person in charge at an incident and who must be fully qualified to manage the response
Bioenvironmental Engineering
_____________ may assume Incident Command for recovery operations where health risk assessments are the main concern
First responders
Deploy immediately to a disaster scene to provide initial C2, to save lives, and to suppress and control hazards
Emergency responders
Deploy to an accident scene after the first responders to expand C2 and perform support functions
Emergency Operations Center (EOC)
The command and communications (C2) support element that directs, monitors, and supports the installation’s actions before, during, and after an incident; activated and recalled as necessary by the Installation Commander
Emergency Support Functions (ESF)
Groupings of capabilities that provide the support, resources, program implementation, and services that are most likely to be needed during emergency response; serve as the primary operational-level mechanism that provides support during an incident
ESF 5
Emergency Management is known as this Emergency Support Function
ESF 8
Public Health and Medical Services are known as this Emergency Support Function
ESF 10
Oil and Hazardous Materials Response is known as this Emergency Support Function
Specialized Teams
Formed from existing installation and unit personnel resources to support emergency response operations, such as the Readiness Support Team, Shelter Management Team, Contamination Control Team, and Post-attack Reconnaissance Teams
5 phases of incident management
Prevention, preparedness, response, recovery, and mitigation
Prevention phase
Includes broad categories of activities such as intelligence collection and analysis, active defense, proliferation prevention, fire prevention, disease prevention, and contamination prevention
Preparedness phase
Includes actions such as emergency response planning, Air Force EM training, and the Air Force EM exercise and evaluation; also includes specific tasks such as identifying augmentation manpower needs or reviewing Expeditionary Support Plans (ESPs)
Response phase
Includes deploying the DRF, executing the Comprehensive Emergency Management Plan (CEMP) 10-2, and notification and warning
Recovery phase
Includes operations such as implementing casualty treatment, unexploded ordinance staffing, Contamination Control Area processing, airfield damage repair and facility restoration; begins ASAP to ensure sustainment of crucial missions and restoration of normal operations
Mitigation phase
Includes general measures and all activities designed to reduce or eliminate risks to persons or property or to lessen the actual or potential effects or consequences of an incident; an ongoing process considered to be a part of every phase of incident management
Contingency
Defined as an emergency involving military forces caused by natural disasters, terrorists, subversives, or by required military operations
Examples of contingency operations
Major accidents, terrorist use of CBRN material, natural disasters, conventional attack
Emergency Response Guidebook (ERG)
A guidebook for first responders during the initial phase of a dangerous goods / hazardous materials transportation incident
Acute Exposure Guideline Levels (AEGLs)
Developed primarily to provide guidance in situations where there could be a rare, typically accidental, exposure to a particular chemical that could involve the general public; based primarily on acute toxicology data and not sub-chronic or chronic data
AEGL-1
Airborne concentration of a substance above which it is predicted that the general population, including susceptible individuals, could experience notable discomfort, irritation, or certain asymptomatic non-sensory effects; effects are not disabling, are transient, and are reversible upon cessation of exposure
AEGL-2
Airborne concentration of a substance above which it is predicted that the general population, including susceptible individuals, could experience irreversible or other serious, long-lasting adverse health effects or an impaired ability to escape
AEGL-3
Airborne concentration of a substance above which it is predicted that the general population, including susceptible individuals, could experience life-threatening health effects or death
Medical Management of Biological Casualties Handbook
Commonly referred to as the “blue book,” it was created to provide concise supplemental reading material to assist healthcare providers in the management of biological casualties
Information found in the Medical Management of Biological Casualties Handbook
Bacterial / viral / toxins, emerging and future biological weapons, and detection, protection, and decontamination
Medical Management of Radiological Casualties Handbook
Designed to be supplemental material for management in uncontrolled exposure to ionizing radiation
Information found in the Medical Management of Radiological Casualties Handbook
Acute high-dose radiation, management protocol for Acute Radiation Syndrome (ARS), blast and thermal biological effects, contamination, and biological dosimetry
Medical Management of Chemical Casualties Handbook
Provides medical personnel in the field a concise, pocket-sized reference source for medical management of chemical casualties
Vulnerability Assessment
A DoD, command, or unit-level evaluation to determine the vulnerability to terrorist attack of an installation, unit, exercise, port, ship, residence, facility, or other site
After Action Reports (AARs)
Can identify issues with a location and lessons learned during past deployments; provide information regarding industry types and problems identified
US Army Public Health Command (USAPHC)
Has specific information for industrial bases that may be near deployed force locations, to include types of industry and hazard assessments
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
Compile information regarding major industries and the typical chemicals used, materials produced as waste, and most common emissions
Department of Energy
Responsible for tracking all radiological material use across the US and has direct contact with foreign countries; can be helpful if the response involves an area with known radioactive material
Intelligence Sources
Provide information for an occupational and environmental health site assessment (OEHSA), primarily used prior to deployments and for establishing baselines
National Center for Medical Intelligence (NCMI)
Produces finished, all-source, medical intelligence in support of the Department of Defense and its components, national policy officials, and other federal agencies
Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA)
Provides other pertinent operational intelligence to include counterproliferation, facilities, and regional information; provides CBRN related current and emerging threat information and regional politics
National Ground Intelligence Center (NGIC)
Provide a better understanding of ground and operational threats; also provides information on protective and defensive measures specific to countries of interest
Airfield Survey
Can provide orientation to the site location and help identify areas of concern, geographic features, hazards, and other pertinent information
Initial Notification
Begins when the Incident Commander determines that there is a need for BE at the scene of an incident
Accountability
After initial notification has been received, it is important to conduct _________________ of the BE office
15 minutes
Within ______________ of initial notification, a majority of BE personnel should be accounted for
Role assignment
An important part of BE response, as it ensures that everyone knows what their responsibilities are; should be accomplished within 10-15 minutes of the initial notification
BE commander
During role assignment for BEs, this person will be in charge of the entire response, normally the highest ranking or most experienced
Advanced Echelon (ADVON)
This team leaves before the rest of the BE office to ensure timely on-scene presence with the IC and to gather more information
Reconnaissance (RECON)
This team will make initial entry into the scene and start determining hazards and the site picture
Sampling
These teams enter after the recon team and provide more in-depth sampling and identification capabilities
Equipment
This team is responsible for loading all equipment onto response vehicles and performing operation checks (OPChecks) when on scene
BE Base
This team normally remains at the office and provides research support; they will also maintain a chronological log of events and monitor radio traffic
Safe route
A __________ is, essentially, a set of directions given by the IC to avoid contamination, communicate entry control points, and ensure proper staging of resources arriving on scene
Actions completed during the initial site assessment
Gathering of information from other responders, gathering information from witnesses, estimating BE participation, and conducting source characterizations
Initial Site Assessment
During _____________, BE will try to gather more information while on the scene of an incident
Incident Action Plan
Contains general tactics used to achieve goals and objectives; become increasingly important to maintain effective, efficient, and safe operations
Action plans
Emergency response incidents evolve ____________ which must be revised on a regular basis
Considerations of an Incident Action Plan
Incident goal / objectives, response strategies, roles and responsibilities list, health and safety plan, medical plan, and incident map
Level A suit
If going into an unknown hazardous materials scene, the _______________ will be used
PPE
Should be re-evaluated after every entry into an incident when new information has been presented
BE
The approving entity for all PPE used by AF emergency responders, including evaluation and certification of PPE
BE commander
Any non-functioning equipment should be brought to the attention of the ____________ immediately
Site Safety Plan
Provides input on health hazards and control options for the Incident Commander; receives input from BE, Safety, and other areas that are appropriate for the incident
Hazard Identification
This process starts with the initial entry of the recon team and ends when the last team exits
Toxic Industrial Materials (TIMs)
An industrial chemical that is toxic at certain concentrations and is produced in quantities exceeding 30 tons per year at one production facility
Toxic Industrial Materials
___________ are not as lethal as nerve agents, but because they are produced in very large quantities and are readily available, they pose a far greater threat than chemical warfare agents
Chemical Warfare Agents (CWA)
Substances intended for use in warfare or terrorist activities to kill, seriously injure, or seriously incapacitate people
High hazard
Indicates a widely produced, stored, or transported TIM that has high toxicity and is easily vaporized
Medium hazard
Indicates a TIM that may rank high in some categories but is lower in others such as number of producers, physical state, or toxicity
Low hazard
Indicates that this TIM is not likely to be a hazard unless specific factors indicate otherwise
Factors which add complexity to a chemical spill
Oxygen deficient atmosphere, lower explosive limit, odor threshold, vapor density, air inversion, and immediately dangerous to life and health (IDLH)
Nerve agents
Attack the nervous system and affect muscle control, vision, heart, and lung functions
Vesicant
A drug or other agent that produces blisters; highly active corrosive materials even at extremely low levels; attack and destroy cell tissue
Blood agents
Disrupt the oxygen-carrying properties of blood; most effective when employed in mass applications, such as an artillery attack or when released within confined areas that concentrate the agent
Pulmonary agents
Chemical agents that attack lung tissue and cause irritation and inflammation of the bronchial tubes and lungs, primarily causing pulmonary edema
Radioactive White-I
Less than or equal to 0.5 mRem / hr
Radioactive Yellow-II
Greater than 0.5 mRem / hr but less than or equal to 50 mRem / hr
Radioactive Yellow-III
Greater than 50 mRem / hr but less than or equal to 200 mRem / hr
Radiation Area
Any area, accessible to personnel, in which there exists radiation at such levels that a major portion of the body could receive in any one hour a dose exceeding 5 mRem, or in any five consecutive days a dose exceeding 100 mRem
High Radiation Area
Any area, accessible to personnel, in which there exists radiation at such levels, that a major portion of the body could receive in any hour a dose in excess of 100 mRem
Airborne Radioactivity Area
Any room, enclosure, or operating area in which airborne radioactive materials, composed wholly or partly of radioactive material, exist in concentrations in excess of the amount specified in column 1 of table 1 of appendix B to 10 CFR part 20
Radiological Emitting Device (RED)
A powerful gamma-emitting radiation source that can be placed in a high-profile location
Radiological Dispersal Device (RDD)
Any device, including weapons or equipment, other than a nuclear explosive device, specifically designed to employ radioactive material by disseminating it to cause destruction, damage, or injury by means of radiation
Acute Radiation Syndrome (ARS)
Caused by a large dose of penetrating radiation in a very short amount of time
10 rem
This exposure can be allowed for protecting valuable property necessary for public welfare
25 rem
This exposure can be allowed for lifesaving or protection of large populations
Airborne Transmission
Diseases transmitted this way can remain suspended in air for a long time and, when inhaled, may penetrate deeply into the respiratory tract
Aerosolization of biological agents
The most likely and effective way for terrorists to disseminate biological weapons; include influenza, pneumonia, and polio
Contact with Infected Droplets
To transmit disease through contact with mucous membranes of the eyes, nose and mouth; examples of diseases transmitted this way include rubella, tuberculosis, and SARS
Direct Contact
Most sexually transmitted diseases fall into this category, and diseases transmitted this way typically do not survive outside the human body for very long
Indirect Contact
Diseases transmitted this way are generally able to survive on exposed surfaces for extended periods; Norwalk Virus can be transmitted this way
Ingestion of Contaminated Food or Water
Normally this occurs due to contact with infected fecal matter
Vector
An animate intermediary in the indirect transmission of an agent that carries the agent from a reservoir to a susceptible host; spread by insects and animals such as fleas, rodents, flies, and mosquitoes
Antibiotic
A type of antimicrobial agent made from a mold or bacterium that kills or slows the growth of other microbes, especially bacteria
Bioenvironmental Engineering (BE)
After every emergency response, ____________ personnel will complete a health risk assessment and present it to the incident commander
Transition points
Allow for a person to cross from a contaminated area to a non-contaminated area; allow for decontamination and should be included in health risk assessments to limit the spread of contamination exposures
Shelter
A structure used to protect people and resources from effects of NBC / conventional weapons attacks
Shelter classifications
Emergency Operations and Rest and Relief
Emergency Operation Shelters
House control centers and other work centers that must remain operational during hostilities because they provide essential functions
Rest and Relief Shelters
Not designated for emergency operations and are used for rest between work shifts
Collective NBC protection
An important aspect of airbase NBC defense; provides a temperature-controlled, contamination-free environment to allow personnel relief from continuous wear of individual protective equipment
Shelter classes used by the military
Fully integrated systems, partial integration, expedient, secondary enclosure, shelter-in-place
Class 1: Fully Integrated System Shelter
Standalone CP or permanent modification to structure, NBC filters fully integrated with existing heating, ventilation, and air conditioning system
Class 2: Partial Integration Shelter
Permanent modifications and sealing measures made to all or part of structure, partial integration of HVAC filter units, permanent or partial airlock, permanent or temporary CCA
Class 3: Expedient Shelter
Selected portions of structure sealed by temporary measures such as plastic sheeting, barriers, and tape; mobile or transportable filter units; HVAC integration may or may not be employed; temporary air lock
Class 4: Secondary Enclosure Shelter
Structure unsuitable for expedient CP; use internal enclosure or liner system; may allow use of existing HVAC; temporary airlock and CCA
Class 5: Shelter-In-Place
Fully enclosed, unpressurized structure that prevents entry of liquid contamination; portions may be expediently sealed; turn off HVAC system or place in recirculation mode; decontaminate with M291 and M295 kits; personnel move to higher floor in multi-storied structures; may enable temporary MOPP reduction or mask removal
Objective of the shelter program
To provide the best available physical protection from the effects of war or disaster for DoD personnel; in order to do this, there must be advance planning
Base-wide Shelter Plan
Comprehensive guidance for operations under any type of disaster condition; detailed procedures, rules and task assignments
Determining the expected threat
The most important and difficult part of planning shelters is _______________
Shelter Management Team (SMT)
Required to maintain radiological logs that contain radiological doses on Shelter Radiological Logs and Individual Radiological Dose Records
Immediate Fallout
The depositing of heavy debris within half an hour of the burst; occurs mostly in the area where physical damage is sustained
Medium-Range Fallout
That which is deposited between half an hour and approximately twenty hours after a nuclear explosion up to a range of hundreds of kilometers from the point of burst in the case of a megaton weapon
Long-Range Fallout
The slow removal of very small particles which may continue for months or even years, particularly after a high-yield thermonuclear explosion; this is diffused and eventually deposited over a very large area of the Earth’s surface
Medium-Range Fallout
In general, ____________________ represents the most significant hazard to personnel
Shelter Radiological Logs
Used to document dosimeter readings from dosimeters placed around the shelter in different areas; will be used to determine actual decay rate and to plan future operations
Individual Radiological Dose Record
Each person should maintain a(n) _____________ to ensure that he / she does not exceed wartime or commander-directed doses
Information gathered during initial notification
Caller’s name / rank / phone number, type of incident, location of scene, IC information and safe route
Initial site assessment
During the __________, BE is trying to gather more information while on the scene
BE roles in shelter management operations
Assisting in shelter selection, planning and design; assisting in training shelter management teams
List of items that aid in shelter operations
HAPSITE, industrial ventilation meter, ADM-300, SAM-940, RADeCO, quicksilver kit, Drager CDS kit, HHA, HAZMATID ELITE