422 chapter 8-11

on the job training
job rotation
apprenticeship
classroom
web
job rotation(cross training) is cheap
false (expensive and timely)
4 types of needs assessments
training survey
competency studies
task analysis
performance analysis
n
n
management development: used to develop capabilities of a person to fit a job
understudy
management development: experienced managers advise/guide trainees in solving managerial problems
coaching
stimulates realistic situation: each person must handle specific managers mail/phone calls
in-basket technique
expose individual to simulated problems to evaluate managerial potential
– used for making decisions on promoting, evaluating, and training managerial personnel
assessment center
planned effort managed from the top to increase performance through interventions and training
organizational development
organizational development is planned from the bottom
false (top)
organizational development looks at the ____ side of organizations
human
goal of OD: structure the organizational ________ so managers and employees can use their developed skills/abilities to the fullest
environment
OD 4 PHASES
1. diagnosis
2. strategy planning
3. education
4. evaluation
OD diagnosis methods
records
survey
PI
observation
OD strategy planning key: look for _____ and ________
trends
areas of agreement
OD strategy planning end result: to identify _____ and outline steps for _____
problems
resolving problems
share info from diagnosis with affected employees and help them realize need for change
organizational development (purpose)
a thorough analysis in the change-planning phase results in identifying the most appropriate ____/____ method to use
intervention
education
OD education: process where change agent communicates info from diagnosis directly to affected people
direct feedback
OD education: foal is to increase group cohesiveness and spirit
team building
OD education: make one more aware of oneself and impact on others
sensitivity training
_______ has been both criticized and defended on its value to organizations
sensitivity training
the most difficult OD process phase
evaluation
OD requirements:
(1) explicit _____
(2) evaluation effort must be methodologically _____ using _____ data
objectives
sound
objective
__________ can reduce costs due to employee turnover
career development
an ONGOING formalized effort by an ORGANIZATION that focuses on developing and enriching the organization’s HR in light of both employee and organizational needs
career development
process where an individual makes career goals and develops a plan to reach them
career planning
career development looks at ______ careers from the viewpoint of the ______
individual
organization
career planning looks at careers from the eyes of ______
individuals
successful career development requires actions from the organization and the employee
false (org, the employee, AND the employees manager)
career development: instigates and ensures career development takes place; provide training, direction, support
organization
career development: the organization should _____ the conditions and create an _______ that facilitates development of individual career plans
promote
environment
career development: primarily responsible for preparing individual career plans
employee(individual)
career development: catalyst and sounding board for career development; coach, guide, counsel
manager
technique that addresses specifics of progressing from one job to another
career pathing
career paths exist on a formal basis in almost all organizations
false (informal)
career paths are more useful when informally defined
false (formally defined)
ability to keep with the speed of change within the org and to prepare for the future
employees must be responsible for managing their own development
career self-management
has the PRIMARY RESPONSIBILITY for developing a career
employee (individual)
point in a career where likelihood of promotion is low
career plateau
individuals with high potential but perform below standard
learners
individuals who are outstanding and have high potential for advancement
stars
individuals who perform satisfactory but have small chance of advancement
solid citizens
individuals who perform poorly and have little potential
deadwood
most neglected career plateau type
solid citizens
plateauing is viewed negatively today
false (stress, opportunity to redirect career)
invisible barrier that hold off advancement of women and minorities
glass ceiling
a way of terminating employees that benefits both employee and org
outplacement
process of evaluating/communicating to an employee on how they are performing the job and establishing a plan for improvement
performance appraisal
performance appraisals help make ______, determine ____ needs, and provide _____
decisions
training
feedback
performance appraisals should be conducted ____ times a year
2-3
performance appraisals: establishing clear objectives for work to be done by an employee>establishing action plan>measuring achievement>establish new objectives
management by objectives (MBO)
performance appraisals: MBO: employees are not required to participate in developing action plan
false (required)
performance appraisals: managers/peers/customers/suppliers.etc required to complete questionnaire on employee
– lengthy
– compare opinions
multirater assessment
performance appraisals: assess behaviors required to successfully perform a job
BARS (behaviorally anchored rating scale)
performance appraisals: requires evaluator to keep a written record of incidents as they occue
critical incident appraisal
performance appraisals: requires evaluation to describe an employee’s performance in narrative form
essay appraisal
performance appraisal: rater makes y/n responses to questions on employee behavior
checklist
performance appraisal: requires rater to rank statements on how an employee carries out a job
forced choice appraisal
performance appraisals: comparing 2+ employees
ranking methods
performance appraisals>ranking methods: list of employee names on left, ranked by value on right side
alternation ranking
errors in PA: occurs when appraisal stats indicate most employees are appraised in the middle of performance scale
central tendency
errors in PA: occurs when evals are based on recent work
recency
errors in PA: occurs when rater allows a single characteristic to influence judgement
halo effect