A(n) ________ is a marketing intermediary retained by a consumer to guide what that consumer buys.
Several research methods are used to study reference groups and opinion leadership. ________ methods trace communication patterns among members of a group. These techniques allow researchers to systematically map out the interactions that take place among group members.
Anna asks people in her social group their opinion about a movie before she watches it. Her social group is an example of a(n) ________.
The importance of weak ties in a social system is demonstrated by their ________.
When companies use celebrities in their ads they are using the principle of ________ reference groups.
Within groups, informal rules of behavior are called ________.
fear of deviance
________ occurs when an individual may have reason to believe that the group will apply sanctions to punish nonconforming behavior.
________ happens when we do not devote as much time and effort to a task as we could because our contribution is part of a larger group effect.
Angela belongs to a film club that selects and views classic movies once a month. Angela won’t watch scary movies on her own, but agrees to watch the classic vampire film with the club because almost all of the other club members voted to see it. This example demonstrates which factor of conformity?
two-step flow model of influences
________ proposes that a small group of influences disseminates information because they can modify the opinion of a large group.
Margaret stayed on top of what was happening in the marketplace, but she was not necessarily the first to purchase items when they first came out. Margaret would be classified as a(n) ________.
Referent power involves one person admiring the qualities of another person and trying to copy that person’s behaviors.
If a person has social power, he or she has the ability to alter the actions of others.
The influence of others’ opinions is at times more powerful than one’s own perceptions.
Nate searches famous people and tries to buy products that they endorse. For Nate, these celebrities serve as an aspirational reference group.
According to the principle of least interest, a person will gain power in a group as she decreases her commitment to the group.
reinforces our existing product preferences; tries to create new product preferences
In general, advertising is more effective when it ________ than when it ________.
Sophie tells Nick about a great new restaurant. Sophie is practicing ________.
British psychologist Frederic Bartlett used ________ to examine how information mutates.
Consumers are swayed more by negative word of mouth than by positive comments.
Buzz is created by word-of-mouth advertising.
Duane and Kenneth are both active members of Linkedin, a professional networking Web site. They follow and post to discussion boards, connect with colleagues, and frequently update their profiles. In networking terms, Duane and Kenneth are both nodes.
find socially active persons who are intensely interested in the product category and who are similar to the other customers
A marketing manager who wants to identify opinion leaders for her product category should ________.
Recent research on opinion leadership has called into question the traditional view that there are ________ opinion leaders, whose recommendations people see for all purchases.
In advertising terms, a(n) ________ refers to a view or exposure to an advertising message.
Individuals with the ability to influence others’ attributes or behaviors are considered ________.
Meagan is planning her wedding and wants everything to be just right. Because she feels overwhelmed by all of the information to sort through and the choices to make, she hires a wedding planner to make many of the decisions and purchases for her. Meagan’s wedding planner is best described as a(n)
Anna and David both have the same college degree, belong to the same social class, and attend the same church. This situation illustrates ________.
________ are generally more involved in a product category and actively search for information.
Opinion leaders are likely to also be opinion seekers.
Homophily refers to the degree to which a pair of individuals is similar in terms of education, social status, and beliefs.
Earlier purchasers tend to be innovators, who like to take risks.
________ refers to the strategy of getting visitors to a Web site to forward information on the site of their friends in order to make more consumers aware of a product.
A type of virtual community of consumption based on sharing online journals is called ________.
Amanda’s Web site will decrease the credibility of the dealership’s ad and will influence potential buyers to stay away from the dealership.
Amanda thought she had been cheated by a local car dealership. She was so upset that she created a Web site to share her story with the world. What is the most likely result of Amanda’s action?
A set of socially relevant nodes connected by one or more relations is called a social ________.
Which term refers to exchanges of resources, information, or influence among members of networks?
A ________ is an economy that is driven by a fairly small group of rich people.
social class and income
The best predictor of major expenditures that do not have status or symbolic value is ________.
One percenters are an example of ________.
the relationship between the lending prime rate and growth rates
Which of the following is NOT listed as a determiner of how much a person will save (saving rate)?
____ measures how optimistic or pessimistic people are about the future health of the economy and how they will fair in the future.
working class lower middle
Blue-collar workers with relatively high-prestige jobs consider themselves as ________.
Teenagers don’t have the income of adults, but it’s almost all discretionary, meaning that they can spend it as they see fit.
Although teenagers do not have the income of older consumers, they are still an attractive marked based on income. Why?
An economy that is driven by a fairly small number of rich people is called a plutonomy.
Social stratification refers to the creation of artificial divisions in a society.
The wealthiest 160,000 U.S. families are considered one percenters.
Hedonic adaptation basically means that the consumer maintains a fairly stable level of happiness.
Explain the term “hedonic adaptation.”
Jim is considered a part of the upper middle class, while Marcos is considered part of the lower upper class. Jim and Marcos have been identified in terms of ________.
All of the following are important components of social class except for ________.
Most groups exhibit a structure called a ________ in which some members are somehow better off than others in terms of authority, power, or respect.
Anna is a millionaire but she is constantly stressed and unhappy despite her wealth, Anna is experiencing ________.
Hundreds of millions of consumers around the world have the purchasing power to afford higher quality products. This consumer group, known as the ________, tend to buy affordable cars rather than luxury cars.
amount of income
Which of the following variables related to social class distinction is identified by the text as being unclear and the subject of debate with respect to its role as an indicator of social class?
all of the above (functional, reward, indulgence)
SRBI Consulting Business Intelligence divides consumers into which of the following groups?
________ is a system in which we define people by what they do for a living.
Luminaries from Amazon, Google, and Twitter tend to use ________.
China’s economic boom has created 130 million people in what social class?
An example of social mobility is when a consumer moves from one social class to another.
Product complementarity occurs when the symbolic meanings of different products relate to one another.
John Jones purchases products to show visible evidence of his ability to afford luxury goods, John is practicing ________.
the nouveau riche
A member of ________ has recently gained personal wealth and may experience status anxiety. Such individuals may try to display symbols of their success to make up for an internal lack of assurance about the “correct” way to behave.
Of the countries listed below, which is thought to be highly status-conscious?
Vance comes from the lower-upper class as does Jeff. They are both madly in love with Julia, who is beautiful enough to do part-time modeling. According to the principle of ________, Julia could be attracted to both men.
What modern American ceremony would come closest in intent to a Native American potlatch?
Restricted codes focus on the content of objects, not on relationships among objects.
A sophisticated form of conspicuous consumption is called parody display.
all of the above (age, race, ethnic background)
A component of a person’s subculture is ________.
A subculture is a group whose members share beliefs and common experiences that set them apart from others.
Which of the “Big Three” American subcultures makes up 13% of the population?
_______ refers to the factors that motivate people to physically uproot themselves from one location to another.
African American children tend to gravitate toward toys and characters that look like them.
The first thing D’Andrea was asked when she went to work for an advertising firm is how to promote to African-Americans. After careful consideration, which of the following is the best advice D’Andrea could give her new employers?
Culture or origin is considered one of the acculturation agents mentioned in the text.
Green bagels and green beer on St. Patrick’s Day are both examples of de-ethnicization.
Asian Americans’ median income is 28% higher than the U.S. average, and they are almost twice as likely to have graduated from college.
The process of movement and adaption to one country’s cultural environment by a person from another country is called ________.
A church that serves 2000 or more congregants per week is called a ________.
_______ foods are permissible under the laws of Islam.
Most religion-oriented marketing activity in America can be traced to the ________ community.
Mainstream marketers used to avoid religion topics; now they actively target church members.
Alcoholics Anonymous and Weight Watchers follow the spiritual-therapeutic model.
three generations of a family
An extended family unit is characterized by ________ living together.
a mother, a father, and at least one child
A nuclear family consists of ________.
Couples who are better educated on average and choose not to have children are considered DINKS.
an age cohort
Jim Smith, Don Carson, and Jeff Sweeney are all 54 years old, so they can be sorted into ________.
the baby boomer generation
People born between 1946 and 1964 belong to ________.
An age ________ consists of people of similar ages who have undergone similar experiences.
The actual number of years a person has been alive is their ________ age.
Gen Z is the most diverse generation in American history.
idealism vs. activism
Which of the following is NOT one of the basic conflicts common to all teens?
The concept of being a teenager is a relatively new historical development that did not exist prior to about 60 to 70 years ago.
Which of the following statements about teenagers is true?
both A and B (echo boomers and millennials)
Gen Y individuals are also included as ________.
________ are 8- to 14-year-old children.
tems such as Swiffer, Keurig, and Dove target ________.
An age cohort that describes kids who were born in the late 1990s to early 2000s is ________.
Members of Generation X have been termed “slackers” and “baby busters.”
the baby boomer generation
What is the most powerful age segment economically in the United States?
Older adults that control more than 50% of discretionary income are considered the ________ market.
the war baby generation
Members of which of the following age cohorts are part of today’s senior market?
Perceived age is how old a person feels.
________ refers to analytical techniques that combine data on consumer expenditures and other socioeconomic factors with geographic information.
The Prizm System classifies every U.S. zip code into 1 of 66 categories, ranging from blue-blood estates to public assistance.
Culture is best described as a society’s ________.