207 Final Exam Disaster Management

Causes of disaster
Natural (flooding most common, earthquake, fire, hurricanes, tornadoes)
manmade (school shootings, terrorism, vehicle accidents)
Disaster
an occurrence either natural or manmade that causes human suffering and creates human need that victims cannot alleviate without assistance
Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA)
governor requests FEMA –> assessment is done –> officials review request and damage assessment –> make recommendation for presidential emergency disaster declaration –> president makes it official –> response plan & assistance is provided
Multi-casualty incident
more than 2 but fewer than 100 persons are injured
Mass casualty incident
there are a large number of casualties, usually 100+ that significantly overwhelm available emergency medical services, facilities, resources
Primary agents
includes falling buildings, heat, wind, rising water, chemical & biological agents and smoke
Secondary agents
includes bacteria and viruses that produce contamination or infection after the primary agent has caused injury or destruction
Factors affecting the scope and severity of disasters
vulnerability of a population
environment factors
warning time
proximity to the disaster
individual perception & response
Dimensions of disaster
predictability
frequency
controllability (mitigation – prevent/reduction of damage)
time
scope and intensity
Phases of disaster
pre-disaster stage
pre-impact mobilization
impact
emergency
recovery
Federal government that deals with disasters
FEMA
department of homeland security
department of health and human services
CDC
State and local ways to deal with disasters
emergency operating center (EOC) (focuses on the management of the states plan for emergency preparedness)
local communities must have a emergency plan
The emergency response network
incident command system (ICS) (adopted by FEMA to coordinate responses)
emergency operations center and emergency medical system (EOC) (command center for coordination)
Principles of disaster management
prevent the disaster
minimize casualties
prevent further casualties
rescue victims
provide first aide
evacuate the injured
provide definitive medical care
promote reconstruction of lives
Triage
french word meaning sorting or categorizing
coding is based on colors: red, yellow, green, black, contaminated
Red
most urgent
Yellow
urgent second priority
Green
third priority
Black
dying/dead
Contaminated
color code or hazardous hazmat triangle bag
Disaster nursing
the adaptation of professional nursing skills to recognize and meet physical and emotional need resulting from a disaster
The goal of disaster nursing
achieve the best possible level of health for the people and community involved in the disaster
Emergency response during a disaster
concern for health care providers
survey assessments
determination of immediacy of care
role at emergency aid stations
major health concerns following a disaster
psychological and spiritual needs of victims
debriefing
ethical and legal implications