2-The Project Management and Information Technology Context

adaptive software development (ASD)
A software development approach used when requirements cannot be clearly expressed early in the life cycle
Agile software development
“A method for software development that uses new approaches, focusing on close collaboration between programming teams and business experts”
champion
A senior manager who acts as a key proponent for a project
deliverable
“A product or service, such as a technical report, a training session, a piece of hardware, or a segment of software code, produced or provided as part of a project”
executive steering committee
A group of senior executives from various parts of the organization who regularly review important corporate projects and issues
functional organizational structure
“An organizational structure that groups people by functional areas such as information technology, manufacturing, engineering, and human resources”
human resources frame
Focuses on producing harmony between the needs of the organization and the needs of the people
IT governance
“Addresses the authority and control for key IT activities in organizations, including IT infrastructure, IT use, and project management”
kill point
“Management review that should occur after each project phase to determine if projects should be continued, redirected, or terminated; also called a phase exit”
matrix organizational structure
An organizational structure in which employees are assigned to both functional and project managers
offshoring
Outsourcing from another country
organizational culture
“A set of shared assumptions, values, and behaviors that characterize the functioning of an organization”
outsourcing
When an organization acquires goods and/or sources from an outside source
phase exit
“Management review that should occur after each project phase to determine if projects hold be continued, redirected, or terminated; also called a kill point”
political frame
Addresses organizational and personal politics
politics
Competition between groups or individuals for power and leadership
predictive life cycle
A software development approach used when the scope of the project can be clearly articulated and the schedule and cost can be accurately predicted
project acquisition
The last two phases in a project (implementation and close-out) that focus on delivering the actual work
project feasibility
The first two phases in a project (concept and development) that focus on planning
project life cycle
“A collection of project phases, such as concept, development, implementation, and close-out”
project organizational structure
“An organizational structure that groups people by major projects, such as specific aircraft programs”
structural frame
Deals with how the organization is structured (usually depicted in an organizational chart) and focuses on different groups’ roles and responsibilities to meet the goals and policies set by top management
symbolic frame
“Focuses on the symbols, meanings, and culture of an organization”
systems
Sets of interacting components working within an environment to fulfill some purpose
systems analysis
“A problem-solving approach that requires defining the scope of the system to be studied, and then dividing it into its component parts for identifying and evaluating its problems, opportunities, constraints, and needs”
systems approach
“A holistic and analytical approach to solving complex problems that includes using a systems philosophy, systems analysis, and systems management”
systems development lifecycle (SDLC)
A framework for describing the phases involved in developing and maintaining information systems
systems management
“Addressing the business, technological, and organizational issues associated with creating, maintaining, and making changes to a system”
systems philosophy
An overall model for thinking about things as systems
systems thinking
Taking a holistic view of an organization to effectively handle complex situations
virtual team
A group of individuals who work across time and space using communication technologies