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Term Definition
caravel a light fast sailing ship with a rudder and Lateen sails
Henry the Navigator son of king john I of Portugal patron and supporter of explorers
Vasco da Gama Portuguese explorer who traveled to Calicut, India in 1497
Christopher Columbus Italian sailor who traveled west to reach China but discovered islands in the Caribbean instead
Ferdinand Magellan first explorer to attempt the circumnavigate the globe while he was killed on the way some of his sailors completed the journey
Circumnavigate travel completely around the world
Sir Francis Drake English explorer second man to circumnavigate the globe
Henry Hudson Dutch sailor who looked unsuccessfully for the Northwest passage and explored the river that is now named after him
Encomienda Spanish system in which a colonist received land and Native American workers to whom he was required to teach Christianity
Hern'an Cortes Spanish explorer and conqueror of Mexico Aztec empire
conquistador Spanish term for conqueror name for Spanish military leaders who fought against the native peoples of the Americas
Moctezuma 11 Aztec emperor at the time of the of Cortes conquest of Mexico
Francisco Pizarro conqueror of Inca Empire in Peru for the Spanish
Atahualpa ruler of Inca Empire killed by Spanish invaders led by Pizarro
viceroys officials who ruled large areas of Spain American colonies in the king name
Bartollome de Las Casas Spanish priest who Criticized treatment of Native Americans suggesting that slaves from Africa be used as laborers instead
Treaty of Tordesillas treaty signed in 1493 dividing the Americas between Spain and Portugal along an imaginary line
Columbian Exchange the exchange of plants animal and diseases due to contact between the people of European and the America
mercantilism the European economic policy that called for nation to gain wealth in order to build a strong military and expand influence
balance of trade the amount of good sold by a country against those purchased from other countries a favorable balance of trade meant selling more good than were bought
subsidies grants of money given by governments for purpose such as helping people start new business
capitalism economic system in which private individual rather than government perform most of the economic activity with the goal of marking a profit
joint-stock company a company in which investors buy shares of shock receiving a portion of the profit but only losing the amount of their investment if it failed
plantation estates in the Americas where cash crop were grown on alarge scale
triangular trade trading network that brought good from Europe to Africa to be traded for slave to the slaves to the America to be sold then brought American good back to Europe
middle passage name for the second leg of the triangle bringing captive African to the America where they were sold as slave
Olaudah Equiano African who wrote about the horrific conditions African endured on Middle Passage voyages
African Diaspora the spread of people of African descent throughout the America and western Europe as a result of the slave trade eventually spreading African culture throughout the western world

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