EMERGING TRENDS IN INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY [pic] CONTENTS Abstract The role of Information Communication and Technology in the current economies is growing very fast. The technologies are being used by all the sectors, in all the dimensions and in all disciplines of application of the Business Processes. The paper has tried to highlight mainly the trends used by Information Communication and Technology which already exists and which are emerging in the field of education. The challenges faced by the educational planners are also discussed. Design Methodology
A need for emergence of new trends of the Information Communication and Technology is discussed. The trends which exist in the industry are being discussed, and then the trends which are emerging in the Information and Communication Technologies, the role of ITC in Education is highlighted with the challenges which are being faced. Findings ICT: A global vibrant industry Revolutions: Revolution 1: The Computer Revolution 2: The PC Revolution 3: The Microprocessors Revolution 4: The Internet Revolution 5: Wireless Links Originality/ Value Emerging Trends in ICT
ITC in Education Challenges References ITC: A Vibrant , Growing Industry ICT is no longer a Luxury. There may be people or governments which may be a bit less familiar or less enthusiastic. But no doubts that everyone regards it today as a crucial factor and key enabler of the economy. And no economic activity in any country can prevail without use of ICT. The second point is that the ICT industry, especially in developing countries, and mostly in Asia represents one of the fastest growing sectors. Three trends in ICT industry: 1) Commoditization of connectivity. ) Standardization of services 3) Increasing value creation from innovation. We can think of services at several sub-levels, one is developing the software, other is integrating delivery the software and services. Next is standardization of software when we talk Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) Or CRM, the point is users and the biggest problem in the industry is that even the user does not know what they need. Moving towards standardization has both pluses and minuses. On the plus side, it means software will be more accessible, usable and may be cost-effective to use.
And on the minus side for the system integrator’s needs, if the software really works as desired, if it is really as easy to work and plug and play as it claims. So, the standardization of software is going to pose a significant business challenge for many of the companies. The trend on SAAS- “Software AS A Service”, represents the ultimate example of the standardization of software to the point where the end user may no longer be interested in the nuts and bolts of the software itself, or where the software runs, but it is purely interested in the utility, the services aspect of the software.
It also can be argued that talking about “the ICT” revolution is a misnomer; for there has not been one revolution, but five—so far. Revolution 1: The Computer The first revolution started during World War II, with the first large, automatic, general electromechanical calculator, Harvard Mark 1. It was 50 feet long, eight feet tall, and weighed five tons. A couple of years later, ENIAC were presented in Philadelphia, based on radio tubes and practically without any internal memory, yet using 18,000 vacuum tubes and weighing 30 tons. Computers” became a new catchword, and input-output technology graduated from punch cards to magnetic tape, faster printers, and more languages for programming. Applications also were expanded, from use in academic research to weather forecasting, from airline ticketing to accounting. This development continues; the first ICT revolution is still under way. Revolution 2: The PC The second ICT revolution has its roots in the 1970s, when the first “processors on a chip” and magnetic discs were constructed.
But as late as 1977, Ken Olson, the legendary president of the computer company, Digital, stated: “There is no reason anyone would want a computer in their home. ”. This second ICT revolution continues like the first: the capacities of the machines increase, their applications expand, and the number of people who use them multiplies. Revolution 3: The Microprocessor The third ICT revolution is that microprocessors have become embedded in an ever-widening range of products: the steering systems of airplanes, the control panels of hydroelectric power stations, domestic air conditioning systems, the traffic lights in our streets.
Even when we do not recognize it, they have become part of our everyday lives: in video players, credit cards, remote controllers, cameras, hotel room door locks, and smart buildings. There is a microprocessor embedded in our digital scale in the bathroom. Microprocessors translate bar codes into prices at the cash register, monitor electronic injection of fuel in our cars, and determine where the elevator stops in our building. An ordinary household now contains some 100 microprocessors, in everything from dishwashers to alarm systems. Microprocessors constantly expand their capacity, applications, and users.
Revolution 4: The Internet The fourth ICT revolution stretches back to the late 1960s, when the U. S. Department of Defense drew up guidelines for a communication network among computers (ARPANET). After a while, universities in and outside the United States were hooked up to it, and some started to use it to send messages. A couple 22 of years later, surfing on the ’net started, and more and more people hooked up. A PC needed a modem to use its potential fully. This fourth ICT revolution continues like the others as more and more computers are interlinked with an ever-growing number of “servers” and an expanding range of applications.
Revolution 5: Wireless Links The fifth ICT revolution was linking without lines—the new possibilities opened by mobile phones. At first, they were big and bulky. Reduction in size and weight was accompanied by expansion of reach and functions, and miniaturization was accompanied by multifunctionality. Linking without lines now takes place not just intercontinentally via satellites, but also via high-frequency short-range radio transmitters covering a specific area or cell (hence the name, “cellular phones”) and inside buildings by “Bluetooth” and infrared light.
Global Emerging Trends of ICT Virtualization. Virtualization in storage and client devices is moving rapidly , but much of the current buzz is focused on server virtualization. Virtualization eliminates duplicate copies of data the real storage devices while maintaining the illusion to the systems who are accessing that the files are as originally stored and can significantly decrease the cost of storage devices and media to hold information. Instead of the motherboard function being located in the data center hardware, it is located there as a virtual machine bubble.
Virtual desktop capabilities will be adopted by fewer than 45 percent of target users by 2010. Cloud Computing. The key characteristics of cloud computing are 1) delivery of “as a service,” 2) delivery of services in a highly scalable and elastic fashion, 3) using Internet technologies and techniques to develop and deliver the services, and 4) designing for delivery to external customers. Cloud computing is a style of computing that providers deliver a variety of IT enabled capabilities to consumers. It enables very small companies to grow. Social Software and Social Networking.
Social software includes a broad range of technologies, such as social networking, social collaboration, social media and social validation. Soon a social platform should be adopted Organizations should be adopted so that your views and voice should not left mute in a dialogue where your voice must be heard. Redefinition of learning spaces. The ordered classroom of 40 desks in rows of 5 may quickly become a picture of the industrial age as colleges around the world are making them thinking the most appropriate learning environments to increase collaborative, cross-disciplinary, students centered learning.
Concepts such as greater use of light, colors, circular tables, individual spaces for students and teachers, and smaller open learning spaces for project-based learning are increasingly emphasized. Teacher-generated open content. School systems are increasingly empowering teachers to identify and create the learning resources that they find most effective in the classroom. Many online texts allow teachers to edit, add to, or otherwise customize material for their own purposes, so that their students receive a tailored copy that exactly suits the style and pace of the course..
Such activities often challenge traditional notions of intellectual property and copyright. Teacher managers/mentors. The role of the teacher in the classroom is being transformed from that of the font of knowledge to an instructional manager helping to guide students through individualized learning pathways, identifying relevant learning resources, creating collaborative learning opportunities, and providing insight and support both during formal class time and outside of the designated time. Ubiquitous learning.
With the emergence of increasingly robust connectivity infrastructure and cheaper computers, college systems around the world are developing the ability to provide learning opportunities to students “anytime, anywhere”. This trend requires a rethinking of the traditional 40 minute lesson. In addition to hardware and Internet access, it requires the availability of virtual mentors or teachers, and/or opportunities for peer to peer and self-paced, deeper learning. ITC in education: Information communication technology is changing the trends and norms that were set for the contemporary world.
It is not only connected the world at one single platform but also helping in reducing the gap of digital divide and digital oppourstunity. The main purpose of the strategy for information and communication technology. Implementation in education is ti provide the trends of integration of ICT into general activities which serves to education. Whether school students usually do their formal studying in school, the case is not same for the students in higher education, a growing minority of whom may study only partly-or not at all-on the campus of the university that is running their course.
In developed countries, this is often because students are working while studying. Most of pure distance universities, build on older techniques of distance learning. Many universities offer a mix of delivery methods. Annually, the goal is to widen access into markets that can not easily be reached with more traditional approach. Some offer the same course online and in a classroom, otherwise a hybrid mix of electronic and traditional methods of delivery some setup satellite campuses with broadband links through which the students can learn partly at a distance.
Challenges The problem for educational planners is how to reach, within a reasonable time, the needs of the majority who are poor, uneducated, and live in rural areas: how to fund, implement, and maintain the educational part of ICT networks. This question is all the more to be highlight because most major international teleoperators do not include sub-Saharan Africa or the remote areas of Central Asia in their business strategy plans. The bitter fact is this: What happens in a country does not depend on the state of the art, but on the state of its economy.
Equally important question is not that who can use the internet, but who can produce it. Both IT workforce and IT professionals are required who can produce an content material for internet. The cyber law in India also imposes certain restrictions and their violations may take the form of offences and contraventions. Cyber crimes in India are taken care of by the Information Technology Act, 2000 (IT Act, 2000), but not completely helpful in preventing them. that. These aspects must be kept in mind by Companies, Individual and even by the Government.
With the rapid change in technology, training cannot be a one-shot affair; we have to be updated continuously to stay abreast of developments. Planning and designing educational systems so that they familiarize students with a technology that is being modified and evolving continuously is not just an intellectual challenge, it is also an economic one. References: Emerging trends in ICT education By Meoli Kashorda, Ph. D. , MIEEE, MIET, Faculty of Information Technology, Strathmore University. 0 Global Trends in ICT and education: http://blogs. worldbank. org/edutech/10-global-trends-in-ict-and-education Emerging Trends in ICT and Education http://www. usq. edu. au/course/material/edu5472/content/mod11. htm Research Report for GeSCI Meta-Review of ICT in Education Prepared by: John LeBaron Jay M. Robinson Distinguished Professor of Educational Technologies Western Carolina University University of North Carolina Cullowhee, NC, USA ICT trends in INDIA-2006 by Praveen Dayal.